Use the search box below to research your ancestors by surname, street name, pub name etc. etc.
Do you have detail to add, please contact me : Kevan

Index to Stow's original Survey of London written in 1598

GOVERNORS OF THE CITY OF LONDON; AND FIRST OF ECCLESIASTICAL BISHOPS AND OTHER MINISTERS THERE

Having thus run through the description of these cities of London and Westminster, as well in their original foundations, as in their increases of buildings and ornaments, together with such incidents of sundry sorts as are before, both generally and particularly discoursed, it remaineth that somewhat be noted by me touching the policy and government, both ecclesiastical and civil, of London, as I have already done for Westminster, the order whereof is appointed by the late statute, even as that of London is maintained by the customs thereof, most laudably used before all the time of memory.

And first, to begin with the ecclesiastical jurisdiction: I read that the Christian faith was first preached in this island (then called Britaine) by Joseph of Arimathea, and his brethren, disciples of Christ, in the time of Aruiragus, then governor here under the Roman emperor; after which time, Lucius, king of the Britaines, sent his ambassadors, Eluanus and Meduvanus, two men learned in the Scriptures, with letters to Eleutherius,[300] bishop of Rome, desiring him to send some devout and learned men, by whose instruction he and his people might be taught the faith and religion of Christ. Eleutherius baptised those messengers, making Eluanus a bishop, and Meduvius a teacher, and sent over with them into Britain two other famous clerks, Faganus and Deruvianus, by whose diligence Lucius, and his people of Britaine, were instructed in the faith of Christ, and baptized, the temples of idols were converted into cathedral churches, and bishops were placed where Flammines before had been; at London, Yorke, and Carleon upon Uske, were placed archbishops, saith some. The epistle said to be sent by Eleutherius to king Lucius, for the establishing of the faith, ye[423] may read in my Annals, Summaries, and Chronicles, truly translated and set down as mine author hath it, for some have curtailed and corrupted it, and then fathered it upon reverend Bede, who never wrote word thereof, or otherwise to that effect, more than this as followeth.

In the year 156, Marcus Aurelius Verus, the fourteenth emperor after Augustus, governed the empire with his brother Aurelius Comodus; in whose time, Glutherius, a holy man, being pope of the church of Rome, Lucius, king of Britaines, wrote unto him, desiring that by his commandment he might be made Christian; which his request was granted him; whereby the Britaines receiving then the faith, kept it sound and undefiled in rest and peace until Dioclesian the emperor’s time. Thus far Bede, which may suffice to prove the Christian faith there to be received here. And now of the London bishops as I find them.

There remaineth in the parish church of St. Peter upon Cornhill in London a table, wherein is written, that Lucius founded the same church to be an archbishop’s see, and metropolitan or chief church of his kingdom, and that it so endured the space of four hundred years, until the coming of Augustine the monk, and others, from Rome, in the reign of the Saxons. The archbishops’ names I find only to be set down by Joceline of Furnes, in his book of British bishops, and not elsewhere. Thean (saith he) was the first archbishop of London, in the time of Lucius, who built the said church of St. Peter, in a place called Cornhill in London, by the aid of Ciran, chief butler to King Lucius.

2. Eluanus was the second, and he built a library to the same church adjoining, and converted many of the Druids (learned men in the Pagan law) to the Christian faith.

3. Cadar was the third; then followed,

4. Obinus.

5. Conan.

6. Paludius.

7. Stephen.

8. Iltute.

9. Dedwin.

10. Thedred.

11. Hillary.

12. Guidelium.

13. Vodimus, slain by the Saxons.

14. Theanus, the fourteenth, fled with the Britaines into Wales, about the year of Christ 587.

[424]

Thus much out of Joceline of the archbishops; the credit whereof I leave to the judgment of the learned; for I read of a bishop of London (not before named) in the year of Christ 326, to be present at the second council, holden at Arles, in the time of Constantine the Great, who subscribed thereunto in these words: Ex provinciæ Britaniæ Civitate Londiniensi Restitutus Episcopus, as plainly appeareth in the first tome of the councils, he writeth not himself archbishop, and therefore maketh the matter of archbishops doubtful, or rather, overthroweth that opinion.

The Saxons being pagans, having chased the Britons, with the Christian preachers, into the mountains of Wales and Cornewall; and having divided this kingdom of the Britons amongst themselves, at the length, to wit, in the year 596, Pope Gregory, moved of a godly instinction (sayeth Bede), in the 147th year after the arrival of the Angles or Saxons in Britaine, sent Augustine, Miletus, Justus, and John, with other monks, to preach the Gospel to the said nation of the Angles: these landed in the isle of Thanet, and were first received by Ethelbert, king of Kent, whom they converted to the faith of Christ, with divers other of his people, in the 34th year of his reign, which Ethelbert gave unto Augustine the city of Canterbury.

This Augustine, in the year of Christ 604, consecrated Miletus and Justus bishops, appointing Miletus to preach unto the East Saxons, whose chief city was London; and there King Sebert, nephew to Ethelbert, by preaching of Miletus, received the Word of Life: and then Ethelbert king of Kent, built in the city of London St. Paul’s church, wherein Miletus began to be bishop in the year 619, and sat five years. Ethelbert, by his charter, gave lands to this church of St. Paul, so did other kings after him. King Sebert, through the good life, and like preaching of Miletus, having received baptism, to show himself a Christian, built a church to the honour of God and St. Peter, on the west side of London, which church is called Westminster; but the successors of Sebert being pagans, expelled Miletus out of their kingdoms.

Justus, the second bishop for a time, and then Miletus again; after whose decease the seat was void for a time. At length Sigebert, son to Sigebert, brother to Sebert, ruled in Essex; he became a Christian, and took to him a holy man named Cedde, or Chadde, who won many by preaching, and good life, to the Christian religion.

Cedde, or Chad, was by Finan consecrated bishop of the East[425] Saxons, and he ordered priests and deacons in all the parts of Essex, but especially at Ithancaster and Tilberie.

This city of Ithancaster (saith Raph Cogshall) stood on the bank of the river Pante, that runneth by Maldun, in the hundred of Danesey, but now is drowned in Pante, so that nothing remaineth but the ruin of the city in the river Tilberie (both the west and east) standeth on the Thames side, nigh over against Gravesend.

Wina, expelled from the church of Winchester by Cenewalche the king, was adopted to be the fourth bishop of London, in the reign of Wolferus king of Mercia, and sat nine years.

Erkenwalde, born in the castle or town of Stallingborough in Lindsey, first abbot of Crotesey, was by Theodore archbishop of Canterbury appointed to be bishop of the East Saxons, in the city of London. This Erkenwalde, in the year of Christ 677, before he was made bishop, had built two monasteries, one for himself, being a monk, in the isle of Crote in Surrey, by the river of Thames, and another for his sister Edilburge, being a nun, in a certain place called Berching in Essex; he deceased at Berching in the year 697, and was then buried in Paul’s church, and translated into the new church of St. Paul in the year 1148.

Waldhere was bishop of London. Sebba king of the East Saxons at his hands received the habit of monk, for at that time there were monks in Paul’s church, as writeth Radulphus de Diceto, and others. To this bishop he brought a great sum of money, to be bestowed and given to the poor, reserving nothing to himself, but rather desired to remain poor in goods as in spirit, for the kingdom of heaven. When he had reigned thirty years he deceased at Paul’s, and was there buried, and lieth now in a coffin of stone, on the north side of the aisle next the choir.

Ingwaldus bishop of London was at the consecration of Tatwine archbishop of Canterbury; he confirmed the foundation of Crowland in the year 716, saith Ingulfus, and deceased in the year 744, as saith Hoveden.

746. Engulfe bishop of London.

754. Wichet, or Wigerus, bishop of London.

761. Eaderightus, or Edbrithe, bishop of London.

768. Eadgain, or Eadgarus, bishop of London.

773. Kenewallth bishop of London.

784. Eadbaldus bishop of London.

795. Heatbright bishop of London, deceased 802, saith Hoveden.

[426]

813. Osmond bishop of London; he was witness to a charter made to Crowland in the year 833, saith Ingulphus.

835. Ethelmothe bishop of London.

838. Elbertus, or Celbertus, bishop of London.

841. Caulfe bishop of London.

850. Swithulfus bishop of London; he likewise was witness to a charter of Crowland 851.

860. Edstanus bishop of London; witness to a charter to Crowland 860.

870. Ulsius bishop of London.

878. Ethelwardus bishop of London.

886. Elstanus bishop of London, died in the year 900, saith Asser; and all these, saith the author of Flores Historiarum, were buried in the old church of St. Paul, but there remaineth now no memory of them.

900. Theodricus bishop of London; this man confirmed King Edred’s charter made to Winchester in the year 947, whereby it seemeth that he was bishop of London of a later time than is here placed.

922. Welstanus bishop of London.

941. Brithelme bishop of London.

958. Dunstanus, abbot of Glastonberie, then bishop of Worcester, and then bishop of London; he was afterwards translated to Canterbury 960.

960. Ealfstanus bishop of London; the 28th in number.

981. Edgare bishop of London; he confirmed the grants made to Winchester and to Crowland 966, and again to Crowland 970, the charter of Ethelred, concerning Ulfrunhampton, 996.

1004. Elphinus bishop of London.

1010. Alwinus bishop of London; he was sent into Normandy in the year 1013, saith Asser.

1044. Robert, a monk of Gemerisins in Normandy, bishop of London seven years, afterwards translated from London to Canterbury.

1050. Specgasius, elected, but rejected by the king.

1051. William, a Norman chaplain to Edward the Confessor, was made bishop of London 1051, sate 17 years, and deceased 1070. He obtained of William the Conqueror the charter of liberties for the city of London, as I have set down in my Summary, and appeareth by his epitaph in Paul’s church. 1070. Hugh de Orwell bishop of London; he died of a leprosy when he had sitten fifteen years.

1085. Maurice bishop of London; in whose time, to wit, in[427] the year 1086, the church of St. Paul was burnt, with the most part of this city; and therefore he laid the foundation of a new large church; and having sat twenty-two years he deceased 1107, saith Paris.

1108. Richard Beame, or Beamor, bishop of London, did wonderfully increase the work of this church begun, purchasing the streets and lanes adjoining with his own money; and he founded the monastery of St. Osyth in Essex. He sat bishop nineteen years, and deceased 1127.

1127. Gilbertus Universalis, a canon of Lyons, elected by Henry I.; he deceased 1141, when he had sat fourteen years.

1142. Robert de Segillo, a monk of Reading, whom Mawde the empress made bishop of London, where he sat eleven years. Geffrey de Magnavile took him prisoner at Fulham, and he deceased 1152.

1153. Richard Beames, archdeacon of Essex, bishop of London ten years, who deceased 1162.

1163. Gilbert Foliot, bishop of Hereford, from whence translated to London, sat twenty-three years, and deceased 1186.

1189. Richard Fitz Nele, the king’s treasurer, archdeacon of Essex, elected bishop of London at Pipwel, 1189. He sate nine years, and deceased 1198. This man also took great pains about the building of Paul’s church, and raised many other goodly buildings in his diocese.

1199. William S. Mary Church, a Norman, bishop of London, who was one of the three bishops that, by the pope’s commandment, executed his interdiction, or curse, upon the whole realm of England; but he was forced, with the other bishops, to flee the realm in 1208; and his castle at Stratford in Essex was by commandment of King John overthrown, 1210. This William, in company of the archbishop of Canterburie, and of the bishop of Elie, went to Rome, and there complained against the king, 1212, and returned, so as in the year 1215 King John, in the church of St. Paul, at the hands of this William, took upon him the cross for the Holy Land. He resigned his bishoprick of his own voluntary in the year 1221, saith Cogshall.

1221. Eustachius de Fauconbridge, treasurer of the exchequer (saith Paris), chancellor of the exchequer (saith Textor and Cogshall), bishop of London, 1223, whilst at Chelmesforde he was giving holy orders, a great tempest of wind and rain annoyed so many as came thither, whereof it was gathered how highly God was displeased with such as came to receive orders, to the end that they might live a more easy life of the stipend appointed[428] to the churchmen, giving themselves to banquetting; and so with unclean and filthy bodies (but more unclean souls) presume to minister unto God, the author of purity and cleanness. Falcatius de Brent was delivered to his custody in the year 1224. This Eustachius deceased in the year 1228, and was buried in Paul’s church, in the south side, without, or above, the choir.

1229. Roger Niger, archdeacon of Colchester, made bishop of London. In the year 1230 (saith Paris), upon the feast day of the Conversion of St. Paul, when he was at mass in the cathedral church of St. Paul, a great multitude of people being there present, suddenly the weather waxed dark, so as one could scantly see another, and a horrible thunder-clap lighted on the church, which so shook it, that it was like to have fallen, and therewithal out of a dark cloud proceeded a flash of lightning, that all the church seemed to be on fire, whereupon such a stench ensued, that all men thought they should have died; thousands of men and women ran out of the church, and being astonied, fell upon the ground void of all sense and understanding; none of all the multitude tarried in the church save the bishop and one deacon, which stood still before the high altar, awaiting the will of God. When the air was cleansed, the multitude returned into the church, and the bishop ended the service.

This Roger Niger is commended to have been a man of worthy life, excellently well-learned, a notable preacher, pleasant in talk, mild of countenance, and liberal at his table. He admonished the usurers of his time to leave such enormities as they tendered the salvation of their souls, and to do penance for that they had committed. But when he saw they laughed him to scorn, and also threatened him, the bishop generally excommunicated and accursed all such, and commanded straitly that such usurers should depart farther from the city of London, which hither towards had been ignorant of such mischief and wickedness, least his diocese should be infected therewithal. He fell sick and died at his manor of Bishops hall, in the lordship and parish of Stebunheth, in the year 1241, and was buried in Paul’s church, on the north side of the presbytery, in a fair tomb, coped, of grey marble.

1241. Fulco Basset, dean of Yorke, by the death of Gilbert Basset, possessed his lands, and was then made bishop of London, deceased on the 21st of May, in the year 1259, as saith John Textor, and was buried in Paul’s church.

1259. Henry Wingham, chancellor of England, made bishop[429] of London, deceased in the year 1262, saith Textor, and was buried in Paul’s church, on the south side, without or above the choir, in a marble monument, close at the head of Fauconbridge.

1262. Richard Talbot, bishop of London, straightways after his consecration deceased, saith Eversden.

1262. Henry Sandwich, bishop of London, deceased in the year 1273, the same author affirmeth.

1273. John Cheshul, dean of Paul’s, treasurer of the Exchequer, and keeper of the great seal, was bishop of London, and deceased in the year 1279, saith Eversden.

1280. Fulco Lovel, archdeacon of Colchester, elected bishop of London, but refused that place.

1280. Richard Gravesend, archdeacon of Northampton, bishop of London. It appeareth by the charter-warren granted to this bishop, that in his time there were two woods in the parish of Stebunhith pertaining to the said bishop. I have since I kept house for myself known the one of them by Bishops hall; but now they are both made plain of wood, and not to be discerned from other grounds. Some have fabuled that this Richard Gravesend, bishop of London, in the year 1392, the 16th of Richard II., purchased the charter of liberties to this city; which thing hath no possibility of truth, as I have proved, for he deceased in the year 1303, almost ninety years before that time.

1307. Raph Baldocke, dean of Paul’s, bishop of London, consecrated at Lyons by Peter, bishop of Alba, in the year 1307; he was a great furtherer of the new work of Paul’s; to wit, the east end, called our Lady chapel, and other adjoining. This Raph deceased in the year 1313, and was buried in the said Lady chapel, under a flat stone.

1313. Gilbert Segrave was consecrated bishop of London, and sat three years.

1317. Richard Newport, bishop of London, sat two years, and was buried in Paul’s church.

1318. Stephen Gravesend, bishop of London, sat twenty years.

1338. Richard Wentworth, bishop of London, and chancellor of England, and deceased the year 1339.

1339. Raph Stratford, bishop of London; he purchased the piece of ground called No Man’s land, beside Smithfield, and dedicated it to the use of burial, as before hath appeared. He was born at Stratford upon Avon, and therefore built a chapel to St. Thomas there: he sat fourteen years, deceased at Stebunhith.

[430]

1354. Michael Norbroke, bishop of London, deceased in the year 1361, saith Mirimouth, sat seven years.

1362. Simon Sudbery, bishop of London, sat thirteen years, translated to be archbishop of Canterbury in the year 1375.

1375. William Courtney, translated from Hereford to the bishoprick of London, and after translated from thence to the archbishoprick of Canterbury in the year 1381.

1381. Robert Breybrook, canon of Lichfield, bishop of London, made chancellor in the 6th of Richard II., sat bishop twenty years, and deceased in the year 1404: he was buried in the said Lady chapel at Paul’s.

1405. Roger Walden, treasurer of the exchequer, archbishop of Canterbury, was deposed, and after made bishop of London; he deceased in the year 1406, and was buried[301] in Paul’s church, Allhallowes altar.

1406. Richard Bubwith, bishop of London, treasurer of the exchequer, translated to Salisbury, and from thence to Bathe, and lieth buried at Wels.

1407. Richard Clifford, removed from Worcester to London, deceased 1422, as saith Thomas Walsingham, and was buried in Paul’s.

1422. John Kempe, fellow of Martin college in Oxford, was made bishop of Rochester, from whence removed to Chichester, and thence to London; he was made the king’s chancellor in the year 1425, the 4th of Henry VI., and was removed from London to York in the year 1426: he sat archbishop there twenty-five years, and was translated to Canterbury; he was afterwards made cardinal in the year 1452. In the bishop of London’s house at Fulham he received the cross, and the next day the pall, at the hands of Thomas Kempe, bishop of London. He deceased in the year 1454.

1426. William Gray, dean of York, consecrated bishop of London, who founded a college at Thele in Hartfordshire, for a master and four canons, and made it a cell to Elsing spittle in London; it had of old time been a college, decayed, and therefore newly-founded. He was translated to Lincoln 1431.

1431. Robert Fitzhugh, archdeacon of Northampton, consecrated bishop of London, sat five years, deceased 1435, and was buried on the south side of the choir of Paul’s.

1435. Robert Gilbert, doctor of divinity, dean of York, consecrated bishop of London, sat twelve years, deceased 1448.

[431]

1449. Thomas Kempe, archdeacon of Richmond, consecrated bishop of London at York house (now Whitehall), by the hands of his uncle John Kemp, archbishop of York, the 8th of February, 1449; he founded a chapel of the Trinity in the body of St. Paul’s church, on the north side; he sat bishop of London thirty-nine years and forty-eight days, and then deceased in the year 1489, was there buried.

1489. John Marshal, bishop of London, deceased in the year 1493.

1493. Richard Hall, bishop of London, deceased 1495, and was buried in the body of St. Paul’s church.

1496. Thomas Savage, first bishop of Rochester, then bishop of London five years, was translated to York 1501, where he sat archbishop seven years, and was there buried in the year 1507.

1502. William Warrham, bishop of London, made keeper of the great seal, sat two years, was translated to Canterbury.

1504. William Barons, bishop of London, sat ten months and eleven days, deceased in the year 1505.

1505. Richard Fitz James, fellow of Merton college in Oxford, in the reign of Henry VI., was made bishop of Rochester, after bishop of Chichester, then bishop of London; he deceased 1521, and lieth buried hard beneath the north-west pillar of the steeple in St. Paul’s, under a fair tomb of marble, over the which was built a fair chapel of timber, with stairs mounting thereunto: this chapel was burned with fire from the steeple 1561, and the tomb was taken down.

1521. Cuthbert Tunstal, doctor of law, master of the rolls, lord privy seal, and bishop of London, was thence translated to the bishopric of Durham in the year 1529.

1529. John Stokeley, bishop of London, sat thirteen years, deceased in the year 1539, and was buried in the Lady chapel in Paul’s.

1539. Edmond Boner, doctor of the civil law, archdeacon of Leycester, then bishop of Hereford, was elected to London in the year 1539, whilst he was beyond the seas, ambassador to King Henry VIII. On the 1st of September, 1549, he preached at Paul’s cross; for the which sermon he was charged before the council of King Edward VI., by William Latimer, parson of St. Lawrence Poltney, and John Hooper, sometime a white monk, and being convented before certain commissioners at Lambith, was for his disobedience to the king’s order, on the 20th day of the same month sent to the Marshalsey, and deprived from his bishopric.

[432]

1550. Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, elected bishop of London, was installed in Paul’s church on the 12th of April. This man by his deed, dated the twelfth day after Christmas, in the 4th year of Edward VI., gave to the king the manors of Branketrie and Southminster, and the patronage of the church of Cogshall in Essex, the manors of Stebunheth and Hackney, in the county of Middlesex, and the marsh of Stebunheth, with all and singular messuages, lands, and tenements, to the said manors belonging, and also the advowson of the vicarage of the parish church of Cogshall in Essex aforesaid; which grant was confirmed by the dean and chapter of Paul’s, the same day and year, with exception of such lands in Southminster, Stebunheth, and Hackney, as only pertained to them. The said King Edward, by his letters patents, dated the 16th of April, in the said 4th year of his reign, granted to Sir Thomas Wentworth, Lord Wentworth, lord chamberlain of the king’s household, for, and in consideration of his good and faithful service before done, a part of the late received gift, to wit, the lordships of Stebunheth and Hackney, with all the members and appurtenances thereunto belonging, in Stebunheth, Hackney way, Shoreditch, Holiwell street, Whitechappell, Stratford at Bow, Poplar, North street, Limehouse, Ratliffe, Cleve street, Brock street, Mile end, Bleten hall green, Oldford, Westheth, Kingsland, Shakelwell, Newinton street alias Hackney street, Clopton, Church street, Wel street, Humbarton, Grove street, Gunston street, alias More street, in the county of Middlesex, together with the marsh of Stebunhith, etc. The manor of Hackney was valued at sixty-one pounds nine shillings and fourpence, and the manor Stebunhith at one hundred and forty pounds eight shillings and eleven pence, by year, to be holden in chief, by the service of the twentieth part of a knight’s fee. This bishop, Nicholas Ridley, for preaching a sermon at Paul’s cross, on the 16th of July, in the year 1553, was committed to the Tower of London, where he remained prisoner till the 10th of April, 1554, and was thence sent to Oxford, there to dispute with the divines and learned men of the contrary opinion; and on the 16th of October, 1555, he was burned at Oxford for opinions against the Romish order of sacraments, etc.

1553. Edmond Boner aforesaid, being released out of the Marshalsey, was restored to the bishoprick of London, by Queen Mary, on the 5th of August, in the year 1553, and again deposed by Queen Elizabeth, in the month of July 1559, and was eftsoones committed to the Marshalsey, where he died on the 5th[433] of September, 1569, and was at midnight buried amongst other prisoners in St. George’s churchyard.

1559. Edmond Grindal, bishop of London, being consecrated the 21st of December, 1559, was translated to York in the year 1570, and from thence removed to Canterbury in the year 1575. He died blind 1583 on the 6th of July, and was buried at Croydowne in Surrey.

1570. Edwine Stands, being translated from Worcester to the bishoprick of London, in the year 1570, was thence translated to Yorke in the year 1576, and died in the year 1588.

1576. John Elmere, bishop of London, deceased in the year 1594, on the 3rd of June at Fulham, and was buried in Paul’s church, before St. Thomas chapel.

1594. Richard Fletcher, bishop of Worcester, was on the 30th of December in Paul’s church elected bishop of London, and deceased on the 15th of June, 1596: he was buried in Paul’s church without any solemn funeral.

1597. Richard Bancroft, doctor of divinity, consecrated at Lambeth on Sunday, the 8th of May, now sitteth bishop of London, in the year 1598 being installed there.

This much for the succession of the bishops of London, whose diocese containeth the city of London, the whole shires of Middlesex and Essex and part of Hartfordshire. These bishops have for assistants in the cathedral church of St. Paul, a dean, a chaunter, a chancellor, a treasurer, five archdeacons—to wit, London, Middlesex, Essex, Colchester, and St. Alban’s, and thirty prebendaries; there appertaineth also to the said churches for furniture of the choir in Divine service, and ministration of the sacraments, a college of twelve petty canons, six vicars choral, and choristers, etc.

This diocese is divided into parishes, every parish having its parson, or vicar at the least, learned men for the most part, and sufficient preachers, to instruct the people. There were in this city, and within the suburbs thereof, in the reign of Henry II. (as writeth Fitz Stephens), thirteen great conventual churches, besides the lesser sort called parish churches, to the number of one hundred and twenty-six, all which conventual churches, and some others since that time founded, are now suppressed and gone, except the cathedral church of St. Paul in London, and the college of St. Peter at Westminster; of all which parish churches, though I have spoken, yet for more ease to the reader I will here again set them down in manner of a table, not by order of alphabet, but as they be placed in the wards and suburbs.

[434]

[442]

THE TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT OF THIS CITY, SOMEWHAT IN BRIEF MANNER

This city of London, being under the government of the Britons, Romans, and Saxons, the most ancient and famous city of the whole realm, was at length destroyed by the Danes, and left desolate, as may appear by our histories. But Aelfred, king of the West Saxons, having brought this whole realm (from many parts) into one monarchy, honourably repaired this city, and made it again habitable, and then committed the custody thereof to his son-in-law Adhered, earl of Mercia; after whose decease the city, with all other possessions pertaining to the said earl, returned to King Edward, surnamed the Elder, etc.: and so remained in the king’s hands, being governed under him by portgraves (or portreves), which name is compounded of the two Saxon words, porte and gerefe, or reve. Porte betokeneth a town, and gerefe signifieth a guardian, ruler, or keeper of the town.

These governors of old time (saith Robert Fabian), with the laws and customs then used within this city, were registered in a book called the Dooms’ day, written in the Saxon tongue; but of later days, when the said laws and customs were changed, and for that also the said book was of a small hand, sore defaced, and hard to be read or understood, it was less set by, so that it was embezzled and lost. Thus far Fabian.

Notwithstanding, I have found, by search of divers old registers and other records abroad, namely, in a book sometime appertaining to the monastery of St. Alban’s, of the portgraves, and other governors of this city, as followeth:

First, that in the reign of King Edward, the last before the Conquest, Wolfegare was portgrave, as may appear by the charter of the same king, in these words: “Edward, king, greeteth Alfward, bishop, and Wolfegare, my portgrave, and all the burgesses in London.” And afterward that, in another charter, “King Edward greeteth William, bishop, and Sweetman, my portgrave.” And after, that in another charter to the abbey of Chertsey, to William, bishop, and Leofstane and Alsy, portgraves. In the reign of William the Conqueror, William, bishop of London, procured of the said Conqueror his charter of liberties, to the same William, bishop, and Godfrey, portgrave, in Saxon tongue, and corrected in English thus:

“William, king, greet William, bishop, and Godfrey, portgrave, and all the burgeses within London, French and English.[443] And I graunt that they be all their law worthy that they were in Edward’s dayes the king. And I will that each child bee his father’s heire. And I will not suffer that any man do you wrong, and God you keepe.” And then in the reign of the said Conqueror and of William Rufus, Godfrey de Magnavile was portgrave (or sheriff), as may appear by their charters, and Richard de Par was provost.

In the reign of King Henry I., Hugh Buche was portgrave, and Leofstanus, goldsmith, provost, buried at Bermondsey.

After them Aubrey de Vere was portgrave, and Robert Bar Querel provost. This Aubrey de Vere was slain in the reign of King Stephen. It is to be noted, also, that King Henry I. granted to the citizens of London the shrivewick thereof, and of Middlesex, as in another place is showed.

In the reign of King Stephen, Gilbert Becket was portgrave, and Andrew Buchevet provost.

After him, Godfrey Magnavile, the son of William, the son of Godfrey Magnavile, by the gift of Maude, the empress, was portgrave, or sheriff of London and Middlesex, for the yearly farm of three hundred pounds, as appeareth by the charter.

In the time of King Henry II., Peter Fitzwalter was portgrave; after him John Fitznigel was portgrave; after him Ernulfus Buchel became portgrave; and after him William Fitz Isabel. These portgraves are also in divers records called vice-counties, vicounties, or sheriffs,[303] as being under an earl; for that they then, as since, used that office as the sheriffs of London do till this day. Some authors do call them domesmen, aldermen, or judges of the king’s court,

William Fitz Stephen, noting the estate of this city, and government thereof in his time, under the reign of King Stephen and of Henry II., hath these words:

“This city (saith he), even as Rome, is divided into wards; it hath yearly sheriffs instead of consuls; it hath the dignity of senators and aldermen; it hath under officers, and, according to the quality of laws, it hath several courts and general assemblies upon appointed days.” Thus much for the antiquity of sheriffs, and also of aldermen, in several wards of this city, may suffice. And now for the name of bailiffs, and after that of mayors, as followeth:

In the first year of King Richard I., the citizens of London[444] obtained to be governed by two bailiffs, which bailiffs are in divers ancient deeds called sheriffs, according to the speech of the law, which called the shire Balliva, for that they, like as the portgraves, used the same office of shrivewicke, for the which the city paid to fee farm three hundred pounds yearly as before, since the reign of Henry I., which also is yet paid by the city into the Exchequer until this day.

They also obtained to have a mayor, to be their principal governor and lieutenant of the city, as of the king’s chamber.

1180. The names of the first bailiffs, or officers, entering into their office at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, in the year of Christ 1189, were named Henry Cornhill and Richard Reynere, bailiffs or sheriffs.

Their first mayor was Henry Fitz Alwin Fitz Liefstane, goldsmith, appointed by the said king, and continued mayor from the 1st of Richard I. until the 15th of King John, which was twenty-four years and more.

1190. The 2nd of Richard I., sheriffs, John Herlion, Roger Duke; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1191. The 3rd, sheriffs, William Haverill, John Bucknote; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1192. The 4th, Nicholas Duke, Peter Newlay; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1193. The 5th, Roger Duke, Richard Fitz Alwin; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1194. The 6th, William Fitz Isabel, William Fitz Arnold; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1195. The 7th, Robert Besaunt, John de Josue; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1196. The 8th, Gerard de Anteloche, Robert Durant; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1197. The 9th, Roger Blunt, Nicholas Ducket; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1198. The 10th, Constantine Fitz Arnold, Richard de Beaco; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

King John began his reign the 6th of April, 1199.

1199. The 1st of King John, sheriffs, Arnold Fitz Arnold, Richard Fitz Bartilmew; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

King John granted the sheriffwicke of London and Middlesex to the citizens thereof, as King Henry I. before had done, for the sum of three hundred pounds yearly. Also he gave them authority to choose and deprive their sheriffs at their pleasure.

[445]

1200. The 2nd, sheriffs, Roger Dorsit, James Bartilmew; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1201. The 3rd, Walter Fitz Alis, Simon de Aldermanbury; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1202. The 4th, Norman Blundel, John de Glie; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1203. The 5th, Walter Browne, William Chamberlain; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

Walter Brune, and Rose his wife, founded the hospital of St. Mary without Bishopsgate, commonly called St. Mary Spittle.

1204. The 6th, Thomas Haverel, Hamond Brond; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1205. The 7th, John Walgrave, Richard Winchester; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1206. The 8th, John Holland, Edmond Fitz Gerard; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1207. The 9th, Roger Winchester, Edmond Hardle; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1208. The 10th, Peter Duke, Thomas Nele; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

The king, by his letters patents, granted to the citizens of London liberty and authority yearly to choose to themselves a mayor.

1209. The 11th, Peter le Josue, William Blund; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1210. The 12th, Adam Whitley, Stephen le Grace; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1211. The 13th, John Fitz Peter, John Garland; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

1212. The 14th, Randolph Giland, Constantine Josue; mayor, Henry Fitz Alwin.

This Henry Fitz Alwin deceased, and was buried in the priory of the Holy Trinity, near unto Aldgate.

1213. The 15th, Martin Fitz Alis, Peter Bate; mayor, Roger Fitz Alwin.

This year the ditch about London was begun to be made, of two hundred and four feet broad, by the Londoners.

1214. The 16th, Salomon Basing, Hugh Basing; mayor, Serle Mercer.

1215. The 17th, John Travars, Andrew Newland; mayor, William Hardel.

[446]

King Henry III. began his reign the 19th of October, 1216.

1216. The 1st, sheriffs, Benet Senturer, William Bluntinars: mayor, James Alderman for part, and Salomon Basing for part.

1217. The 2nd, Thomas Bokerel, Ralph Eiland; mayor, Serle Mercer.

1218. The 3rd, John Viel, John le Spicer; mayor, Serle Mercer.

The forest of Middlesex and the warren of Staines were this year disafforested.

1219. The 4th, Richard Wimbledon, John Viel; mayor, Serle Mercer.

1220. The 5th, Richard Renger, John Viel; mayor, Serle Mercer.

1221. The 6th, Richard Renger, Thomas Lambart; mayor, Serle Mercer.

1222. The 7th, Richard Renger, Thomas Lambart; mayor, Serle Mercer.

Constantine Fitz Aluf raised great troubles in this city, and was hanged with his nephew and other.

1223. The 8th, John Travars, Andrew Bokerel; mayor, Richard Renger.

1224. The 9th, John Travars, Andrew Bokerel; mayor Richard Renger.

The king granted to the commonalty of London to have a common seal.

1225. The 10th, Roger Duke, Martin Fitz William; mayor, Richard Renger.

1226. The 11th, Roger Duke, Martin Fitz William; mayor, Richard Renger.

This year the king confirmed to the citizens of London free warren or liberty to hunt a certain circuit about the city, in the warren of Staines, etc. And, also, that the citizens of London should pass toll-free throughout all England, and that the keddles, or wears, in the river of Thames and Medway should be plucked up and destroyed for ever, etc. Patent, 16th Henry III.

1227. The 12th, Stephen Bokerel, Henry Cocham; mayor, Roger Duke.

The liberties and franchises of London were ratified; and the king granted that either sheriff should have two clerks and two sergeants, also that the citizens should have a common seal.

1228. The 13th, Stephen Bokerell, Henry Cocham; mayor, Roger Duke.

[447]

1229. The 14th, William Winchester, Robert Fitz John; mayor, Roger Duke.

1230. The 15th, Richard Walter, John de Woborne; mayor, Roger Duke.

1231. The 16th, Michael S. Helan, Walter de Bussell; mayor, Andrew Bokerel, pepperer.

1232. The 17th, Henry de Edmonton, Gerard Bat; mayor, Andrew Bokerel, pepperer.

1233. The 18th, Simon Fitzmary, Roger Blunt; mayor, Andrew Bokerel, pepperer.

1234. The 19th, Raph Ashwye, John Norman; mayor, Andrew Bokerel, pepperer.

1235. The 20th, Gerard Bat, Richard Hardle; mayor, Andrew Bokerel, pepperer.

1236. The 21st, Henry Cocham, Jordan of Coventrie; mayor, Andrew Bokerel, pepperer.

1237. The 22nd, John Toloson, Gervais the cordwainer; mayor, Andrew Bokerel, pepperer.

1238. The 23rd, John Codras, John Withal; mayor, Richard Renger.

1239. The 24th, Roger Bongey, Raph Ashwye; mayor, William Joyner.

This William Joyner builded the choir of the Grey Friers church in London, and became a lay brother of that house.

1240. The 25th, John Gisors, Michael Tony; mayor, Gerard Bat.

This year aldermen of London were chosen, and changed yearly, but that order lasted not long. Gerard Bat was again elected mayor for that year to come, but the king would not admit him, being charged with taking money of the victuallers in the precedent year.

1241. The 26th, Thomas Duresme, John Viel; mayor, Reginald Bongey.

1242. The 27th, John Fitzjohn, Raph Ashwye; mayor, Reginald Bongey.

1243. The 28th, Hugh Blunt, Adam Basing; mayor, Raph Ashwye.

1244. The 29th, Raph Foster, Nicholas Bat; mayor, Michael Tony.

1245. The 30th, Robert of Cornehil, Adam of Bentley; mayor, John Gisors, pepperer.

1246. The 31st, Simon Fitz Mary, Laurence Frowicke; mayor, John Gisors, pepperer.

[448]

Simon Fitz Mary founded the hospital of Mary, called Bethlem without Bishopsgate. Queene hithe let to farm to the citizens of London.

1247. The 32nd, John Viel, Nicholas Bat; mayor, Peter Fitz Alwin.

1248. The 33rd, Nicholas Fitz Josey, Geffrey Winchester; mayor, Michael Tony.

1249. The 34th, Richard Hardell, John Tholason; mayor, Roger Fitz Roger.

1250. The 35th, Humfrey Bat, William Fitz Richard; mayor, John Norman.

The king granted that the mayor should be presented to the barons of the exchequer, and they should admit him.

1251. The 36th, Laurence Frowike, Nicholas Bat; mayor, Adam Basing.

1252. The 37th, William Durham, Thomas Wimborne; mayor, John Tolason, draper.

The liberties of this city were seized, the mayor charged that he looked not to the assise of bread.

1253. The 38th, John Northampton, Richard Pickard; mayor, Richard Hardell, draper.

1254. The 39th, Raph Ashwie, Robert of Limon; mayor, Richard Hardell, draper.

1255. The 40th, Stephen Doo, Henry Walmond; mayor, Richard Hardle, draper.

The mayor, divers aldermen, and the sheriffs of London, were deprived, and others placed in their rooms.

1256. The 41st, Michael Bockeril, John the Minor; mayor, Richard Hardle, draper.

1257. The 42nd, Richard Owel, William Ashwie; mayor, Richard Hardle, draper.

The king caused the walls of this city to be repaired and made with bulwarks.

1258. The 43rd, Robert Cornhill, John Adrian; mayor, Richard Hardle, draper.

1259. The 44th, John Adrian, Robert Cornhill; John Gisors, pepperer.

1260. The 45th, Adam Browning, Henry Coventry; mayor, William Fitz Richard.

1261. The 46th, John Northampton, Richard Picard; mayor, William Fitz Richard.

1262. The 47th, John Tailor, Richard Walbrooke; mayor, Thomas Fitz Richard.

[449]

1263. The 48th, Robert de Mountpilier, Osbert de Suffolke; mayor, Thomas Fitz Thomas Fitz Richard.

The citizens of London fortified the city with iron chains drawn thwart their streets.

1264. The 49th, Gregory Rokesly, Thomas de Deford; mayor, Thomas Fitz Thomas Fitz Richard.

1265. The 50th, Edward Blund, Peter Angar; mayor, Thomas Fitz Thomas Fitz Richard.

The chains and posts in London were plucked up, the mayor and principal citizens committed to ward, and Othon, constable of the tower, was made custos of the city, etc.

1266. The 51st, John Hind, John Walraven; mayor, William Richards.

The earl of Gloucester entered the city with an army, and therein builded bulwarks, cast trenches, etc.

1267. The 52nd, John Adrian, Lucas de Batencourt; mayor, Alen de la Souch. This Alen de la Souch, being a baron of this realm, and also chief justice, was in the year 1270 slain in Westminster hall by John Warren earl of Surrey.

Thomas Fitz Theobald and Agnes his wife, founded the hospital of St. Thomas of Acon in Westcheap.

1268. The 53rd, Walter Harvy, William Duresm, Thomas Wimborn; mayor, Sir Stephen Edward.

A variance fell in London between the goldsmiths and the tailors, wherethrough many men were slain.

1269. The 54th, Thomas Basing, Robert Cornhill; custos, Hugh Fitz Ottonis, custos of London, and constable of the tower.[304]

1270. The 55th, Walter Potter, Philip Tailor; mayor, John Adrian, vintner.

1271. The 56th, Gregory Rocksley, Henry Waleys; mayor, John Adrian, vintner.

The steple of Bow church in Cheap fell down, and slew many people.

1272. The 57th, Richard Paris, John de Wodeley; mayor, Sir Walter Harvy; custos, Henry Frowike, pepperer, for part of that year.

Edward I. began his reign the 16th of November, 1272.

1273. The first sheriffs, John Horne, Walter Potter; mayor, Sir Walter Harvy, knight.

[450]

1274. The 2nd, Nicholas Winchester, Henry Coventry; mayor, Henry Walles.

1275. The 3rd, Lucas Batecorte, Henry Frowike; mayor, Gregory Rocksley: chief say-master of all the king’s mints throughout England, and keeper of the king’s exchange at London.

1276. The 4th, John Horn, Raph Blunt; mayor, Gregory Rocksley.

1277. The 5th, Robert de Arar, Raph L. Fewre; mayor, Gregory Rocksley.

1278. The 6th, John Adrian, Walter Langley; mayor, Gregory Rocksley.

1279. The 7th, Robert Basing, William Maraliver; mayor, Gregory Rocksley.

1280. The 8th, Thomas Fox, Raph Delamere; mayor, Gregory Rocksley.

1281. The 9th, William Farindon, Nicholas Winchester; mayor, Gregory Rocksley.

This William Farindon, goldsmith, one of the sheriffs, was father to Nicholas Farindon: of these two, Farindon ward took that name.

1282. The 10th, William Maraliver, Richard Chigwel; mayor, Henry Walleis.

This Henry Walleis builded the tun upon Cornhill to be a prison, and the stocks to be a market house.

1283. The 11th, Raph Blund, Anketrin de Betanil; mayor, Henry Walleis.

1284. The 12th, Jordain Goodcheape, Martin Box: mayor, Henry Walleis.

Laurence Ducket, goldsmith, murdered in Bow church, and the murderers hanged.

1285. The 13th, Stephen Cornhill, Robert Rocksley; mayor, Gregory Rocksley; custos, Raph Sandwitch, and John Briton.

It was ordained, that millers should have but one halfpenny for a quarter of wheat grinding, and the great water conduit in Cheap was begun to be made.

1286. The 14th, Walter Blunt, John Wade; custos, Raph Sandwitch.

Wheat was sold at London for sixteen pence, and for twelve pence the quarter.

1287. The 15th, Thomas Cros, Walter Hawtoune; custos, Raph Sandwitch.

[451]

1288. The 16th, William Hereford, Thomas Stanes; custos, Raph Sandwitch.

1289. The 17th, William Betain, John Canterbury; custos, Raph Sandwitch, Raph Barnauars, and Sir John Britaine.

This year a subsidy was granted, for the reparations of London bridge.

1290. The 18th, Falke S. Edmond, Salamon Le Sotel; custos, Sir John Briton, knight.

1291. The 19th, Thomas Romain, William de Lier; custos, Sir John Briton, knight, Raph Sandwitch.

1292. The 20th, Raph Blunt, Hamo. Box; custos, Raph Sandwitch.

1293. The 21st, Henry Bole, Elias Russel; custos, Raph Sandwitch.

Three men had their right hands cut off at the Standard in Cheape, for rescuing of a prisoner, arrested by a sergeant of London.

1294. The 22nd, Robert Rokesley the younger, Martin Amersbery; custos, Sir Raph Sandwitch.

1295. The 23rd, Henry Box, Richard Gloucester; custos, Sir Raph Sandwitch.

1296. The 24th, John Dunstable, Adam de Halingbery; custos, Sir John Briton.

This year all the liberties of the city were restored, the mayoralty excepted.

1297. The 25th, Thomas of Suffolke, Adam of Fulham; custos, Sir John Briton.

1298. The 26th, Richard Resham, Thomas Sely; mayor, Henry Walleis.

Certain citizens of London brake up the tun upon Cornhill, and took out prisoners, for the which they were grievously punished.

1299. The 27th, John Amenter, Henry Fingene; mayor, Elias Russel.

1300. The 28th, Lucas de Havering, Richard Champs; mayor, Elias Russel.

1301. The 29th, Robert Callor, Peter de Bosenho; mayor, Sir John Blunt, knight.

1302. The 30th, Hugh Pourt, Simon Paris; mayor, Sir John Blunt.

1303. The 31st, William Combmartin, John Buckford; custos, Sir John Blunt.

1304. The 32nd, Roger Paris, John de Lincolne; custos, Sir John Blunt.

[452]

Geffrey Hertilepole Alderman was elected to be recorder of London, and took his oath, and was appointed to wear his apparel as an alderman.

1305. The 33rd, William Cosine, Reginald Thunderley; custos, Sir John Blunt.

1306. The 34th, Geffrey Cundute, Simon Bilet; custos, Sir John Blunt.

Seacoal was forbid to be burned in London, Southwark, etc.

Edward II. began his reign 7th of July, the year of Christ, 1307.

1307. The 1st, sheriffs, Nicholas Pigot, Nigellus Drury; mayor, Sir John Blunt.

1308. The 2nd, William Basing, James Botenar; mayor, Nicholas Farringdon, goldsmith.

1309. The 3rd, Roger le Paumer, James of St. Edmond; mayor, Thomas Romaine.

1310. The 4th, Simon de Corpe, Peter Blakney; mayor, Richard Reffam, mercer.

The king commanded the mayor and commonality, to make the wall of London from Ludgate to Fleetbridge, and from thence to the Thames.

1311. The 5th, Simon Merwood, Richard Wilford; mayor, Sir John Gisors, pepperer.

Order was taken, that merchant strangers should sell their wares within forty days after their arrival, or else the same to be forfeited.

1312. The 6th, John Lambin, Adam Lutkin; mayor, Sir John Gisors, pepperer.

1313. The 7th, Robert Gurden, Hugh Garton; mayor, Nicholas Farrindon, goldsmith.

Prices set on victuals:—a fat stalled ox, twenty-four shillings; a fat mutton, twenty pence; a fat goose, two pence halfpenny; a fat capon, two pence; a fat hen, one penny; two chickens, one penny; three pigeons, one penny; twenty-four eggs, one penny, etc.

1314. The 8th, Stephen Abingdon, Hamond Chigwel; mayor, Sir John Gisors, pepperer.

Famine and mortality of the people, so that the quick might unneath bury the dead; horse-flesh, and dogs-flesh, was good meat.

1315. The 9th, Hamond Goodcheap, William Bodelay; mayor, Stephen Abendon.

[453]

1316. The 10th, William Canston, Raph Belancer; mayor, John Wingrave.

An early harvest, a bushel of wheat that had been sold for ten shillings, was now sold for ten pence, etc.

1317. The 11th, John Prior, William Furneis; mayor, John Wingrave.

Such a murrain of kine, that dogs and ravens that fed on them were poisoned.

1318. The 12th, John Pontel, John Dalling; mayor, John Wingrave.

1319. 13th, Simon Abindon, John Preston; mayor, Hamond Chickwel, pepperer.

John Gisors late mayor of London, and many other citizens, fled the city for things laid to their charge.

1320. The 14th, Renauld at Conduit, William Produn; mayor, Nicholas Farindon, goldsmith.

1321. The 15th, Richard Constantine, Richard Hackney; mayor, Hamond Chickwell, pepperer.

1322. The 16th, John Grantham, Richard Elie; mayor, Hamond Chickwell, pepperer.

Fish and flesh market established at the Stocks in the midst of the city.

1323. The 17th, Adam of Salisbury, John of Oxford; mayor, Nicholas Farindon, goldsmith.

Of this Nicholas Farindon, and of William Farindon, and of William Farindon his father, read more in Farindon ward.

1324. The 18th, Benet of Fulham, John Cawson; mayor, Hamond Chickwell, pepperer.

1325. The 19th, Gilbert Mordon, John Cotton; mayor, Hamond Chickwell, pepperer.

The citizens of London took the bishop of Exeter, and cut off his head at the Standard in Cheape.

1326. The 20th, Richard Rothing, Roger Chaunteclere; mayor, Richard Britaine, goldsmith.

This Richard Rothing is said to new build the parish church of St. James at Garlicke hith.

Edward III. began his reign the 25th of January, the year 1326.

This King Edward granted, that the mayor should be justice for the gaol delivery at Newgate, that the citizens of London should not be constrained to go out of the city of London to any war. More he granted, that the liberties and the franchises of the city should not after this time for any cause be taken into[454] the king’s hands, etc. More, he granted by his letters patents, dated the 6th of March, that no Escheater should be in the city, but the mayor for his time.

1327. The 1st sheriffs, Henry Darcie, John Hauton; mayor, Hamond Chickwell, pepperer.

This year the walls of London were repaired.

1328. The 2nd, Simon Francis, Henry Combmartin; mayor, John Grantham.

1329. The 3rd, Richard Lazar, William Gisors; mayor, Richard Swandland.

This year, the king kept a great justing in Cheape, betwixt Sopars lane and the great Crosse.

1330. The 4th, Robert of Elie, Thomas Whorwode; mayor, Sir John Pultney, draper.

1331. The 5th, John Mocking, Andrew Auberie; mayor, Sir John Pultney, draper.

1332. The 6th, Nicholas Pike, John Husbond; mayor, John Preston, draper.

This year was founded Elsinges’ spittle, by W. Elsing, mercer, that became first prior of that hospital.

1333. The 7th, John Hamond, William Hansard; mayor, Sir John Pultney, draper.

1334. The 8th, John Hingstone, Walter Turke; mayor, Reginald at Conduct, vintner.

1335. The 9th, Walter Motdon, Richard Upton; mayor, Nicholas Woton.

1336. The 10th, John Clark, William Curtis; mayor, Sir John Pultney, draper.

This Sir John Pultney founded a college in the parish church of St. Laurence, by Candlewicke street.

1337. The 11th, Walter Nele, Nicholas Crane; mayor, Henry Darcy.

Walter Nele, bladesmith, gave lands to the repairing of the high ways about London.

1338. The 12th, William Pomfret, Hugh Marbeler; mayor, Henry Darcy.

The king granted that the sergeants of the mayor, and sheriffs of London, should bear maces of silver and gilt with the king’s arms.

1339. The 13th, William Thorney, Roger Frosham; mayor, Andrew Aubery, grocer.

1340. The 14th, Adam Lucas, Bartemew Maris; mayor, Andrew Aubery, grocer.

[455]

1341. The 15th, Richard de Barking, John de Rokesley: mayor, John of Oxenford, vintner.

1342. The 16th, John Louekin, Richard Killingbury; mayor, Simon Francis, mercer.

The price of Gascoyn wines at London, four pence, and Rheinish wine, six pence the gallon.

1343. The 17th, John Steward, John Aylesham; mayor, John Hamond.

1344. The 18th, Geffrey Wichingham, Thomas Leg; mayor, John Hamond.

1345. The 19th, Edmond Hemenhall, John of Gloucester; mayor, Richard Leget.

1346. The 20th, John Croyden, William Cloptun; mayor, Geffrey Winchingham.

1347. The 21st, Adam Brapsen, Richard Bas; mayor, Thomas Leggy, skinner.

King Edward won Calais from the French.

1348. The 22nd, Henry Picard, Simon Dolseby; mayor, John Louekin, fishmonger.

A great pest. Sir Walter Mannie, knight, founded the Charterhouse by Smithfield, to be a burial for the dead.

1349. The 23rd, Adam of Bury, Raph of Lym; mayor, Walter Turk, fishmonger.

1350. The 24th, John Notte, W. Worcester; mayor, Richard Killingbury.

1351. The 25th, John Wroth, Gilbert of Stenineshorpe; mayor, Andrew Aubery, grocer.

1352. The 26th, John Pech, John Stotley; mayor, Adam Francis, mercer.

This mayor procured an act of parliament, that no known whore should wear any hood or attire on her head, except red or striped cloth of divers colours, etc.

1353. The 27th, William Wilde, John Little; mayor, Adam Francis, mercer.

This Adam Francis was one of the founders of the college in Guildhall chapel, etc., Henry Fowke was the other.

1354. The 28th, William Tottingham, Richard Smelt; mayor, Thomas Leggy, skinner.

Aldermen of London were used to be changed yearly, but now it was ordained that they should not be removed without some special cause.

1355. The 29th, Walter Foster, Thomas Brandon; mayor, Simon Francis, mercer.

[456]

1356. The 30th, Richard Nottingham, Thomas Dossel; mayor, Henry Picard, vintner.

This Henry Picard feasted the kings of England, of France, Cypres, and Scots, with other great estates, all in one day.

1357. The 31st, Stephen Candish, Bartilmew Frostling; mayor, Sir John Stody, vintner.

This John Stody gave tenements to the vintners in London, for relief of the poor of that company.

1358. The 32nd, John Barnes, John Buris; mayor, John Louekin, stock-fishmonger.

1359. The 33rd, Simon of Benington, John of Chichester; mayor, Simon Dolseby, grocer.

1360. The 34th, John Denis, Walter Berny; mayor, John Wroth, fishmonger.

1361. The 35th, William Holbech, James Tame; mayor, John Peche, fishmonger.

1362. The 36th, John of St. Albans, James Andrew; mayor, Stephen Gondish, draper.

1363. The 37th, Richard Croyden, John Litoft; mayor, John Not, pepperer.

1364. The 38th, John de Mitford, Simon de Mordon; mayor, Adam of Bury, skinner.

1365. The 39th, John Bukulsworth, Thomas Ireland; mayor, John Louekin, fishmonger, and Adam of Bury, skinner.

1366. The 40th, John Warde, Thomas of Lee; mayor, John Lofkin, fishmonger.

This John Lofkin builded the parish church of St. Michael in Crooked lane.

1367. The 41st, John Turngold, William Dikeman; mayor, James Andrew, draper.

1368. The 42nd, Robert Cordeler, Adam Wimondham; mayor, Simon Mordon, stock-fishmonger.

This year wheat was sold for two shillings and six pence the bushel.

1369. The 43rd, John Piel, Hugh Holdich; mayor, John Chichester, goldsmith.

1370. The 44th, William Walworth, Robert Geyton; mayor, John Barnes, mercer.

1371. The 45th, Adam Staple, Robert Hatfield; mayor, John Barnes, mercer.

This John Barnes gave a chest with three locks, and one thousand marks to be lent to poor young men.

[457]

1372. The 46th, John Philpot, Nicholas Brembar; mayor, John Piel, mercer.

1373. The 47th, John Aubery, John Fished; mayor, Adam of Bury, skinner.

1374. The 48th, Richard Lions, William Woodhouse; mayor, William Walworth, fishmonger.

1375. The 49th, John Hadley, William Newport; mayor, John Ward, grocer.

1376. The 50th, John Northampton, Robert Laund; mayor, Adam Staple, mercer.

The Londoners meant to have slain John duke of Lancaster: Adam Staple, mayor, put down, and Nicholas Brembar elected. Also the aldermen were deposed, and others set in their places.

Richard II. began his reign the 21st of June, in the year 1377.

1377. The 1st sheriffs, Nicholas Twiford, Andrew Pikeman; mayor, Sir Nicholas Brembar, grocer.

John Philpot, a citizen of London, sent ships to the sea, and scoured it of pirates, taking many of them prisoners.

1378. The 2nd, John Boseham, Thomas Cornwalis; mayor, Sir John Philpot, grocer.

This Sir John Philpot gave to the city, lands for the finding of thirteen poor people for ever.

1379. The 3rd, John Helisdon, William Barat; mayor, John Hadley, grocer.

1380. The 4th, Walter Doget, William Knightcoate; mayor, William Walworth, fishmonger.

This William Walworth arrested Wat Tyler the rebel, and was knighted. He increased the parish church of St. Michael in Crooked lane, and founded there a college. Other aldermen were also knighted for their service in the field.

1381. The 5th, John Rote, John Hend; mayor, John Northampton, draper.

1382. The 6th, Adam Bamme, John Sely; mayor, John Northampton, draper, or skinner, as I find in record.

1383. The 7th, Simon Winchcombe, John More; mayor, Sir Nicholas Brembar, grocer.

John Northampton, late mayor of London, was committed to perpetual prison, and his goods confiscated.

1384. The 8th, Nicholas Exton, John French; mayor, Sir Nicholas Brembar, grocer, knighted with William Walworth.

1385. The 9th, John Organ, John Churchman; mayor, Sir Nicholas Brembar, grocer.

[458]

The foresaid John Churchman new-built the custom-house, near to the Tower of London, and did many other works for the commodity of this city.

1386. The 10th, W. Standone, W. More; mayor, Nicholas Exton, fishmonger.

This year the citizens of London, fearing the French, pulled down houses near about their city, repaired their walls, and cleansed their ditches, etc.

1387. The 11th, William Venor, Hugh Forstalfe; mayor, Nicholas Exton, fishmonger.

Sir Nicholas Brembar, late mayor of London, was this year beheaded.

1388. The 12th, Thomas Austin, Adam Carlhul; mayor, Nicholas Tuiford, goldsmith, knighted with W. Walworth.

1389. The 13th, John Walcot, John Lovenay; mayor, William Venor, grocer.

1390. The 14th, John Francis, Thomas Vivent; mayor, Adam Bamme, goldsmith.

This Adam Bamme provided from beyond the seas corn in great abundance, so that the city was able to serve the country.

1391. The 15th, John Shadworth, Henry Vamer; mayor, John Hend, draper.

This mayor was for displeasure taken, sent to Windsor castle, and the king made wardens of the city, etc.

1392. The 16th, Gilbert Maghfield, Thomas Newington; mayor, William Stondon, grocer.

1393. The 17th, Drew Barintin, Richard Whitington; mayor, John Hadley, grocer.

Faringdon ward was by parliament appointed to be divided into two wards, to wit, infra and extra.

1394. The 18th, William Branston, Thomas Knoles; mayor, John Froshe, mercer.

1395. The 19th, Roger Elles, William Sevenoke; mayor, William More, vintner.

1396. The 20th, Thomas Wilford, William Parker; mayor, Adam Bamme, goldsmith.

1397. The 21st, John Wodcoke, William Askam; mayor, Richard Whitington, mercer.

1398. The 22nd, John Wade, John Warnar; mayor, Drew Barentin, goldsmith.

Henry IV. began his reign the 29th of September, the year 1399.

[459]

1399. The 1st sheriffs, William Waldern, William Hende; mayor, Thomas Knoles, grocer.

1400. The 2nd, John Wakel, William Ebot; mayor, John Francis, goldsmith.

1401. The 3rd, William Venor, John Fremingham; mayor, John Shadworth, mercer.

The conduit upon Cornhill was this year made of an old prison house called the Tun.

1402. The 4th, Richard Marlow, Robert Chicheley; mayor, I. Walcote, draper.

1403. The 5th, Thomas Falconer, Thomas Poole; mayor, W. Ascham, fishmonger.

1404. The 6th, William Bouth, Stephen Spilman; mayor, John Hend, draper.

This John Hend was a new builder of the parish church of St. Swithen, by London stone.

1405. The 7th, Henry Barton, William Grome; mayor, John Wodcocke, mercer.

This mayor caused all the weirs in the river of Thames, from Stanes to the river of Medway, to be destroyed, and the trinkes to be burned, etc.

1406. The 8th, Nicholas Wooton, Gefferey Brooke; mayor, Richard Whitington, mercer.

This year a great pestilence in London took away more than thirty thousand people.

1407. The 9th, Henry Pontfrackt, Henry Halton, mercer; mayor, William Sandon, grocer.

1408. The 10th, Thomas Ducke, William Norton; mayor, Drew Barentine, goldsmith.

This Drew Barentine built a part of the Goldsmiths’ hall, and gave them lands.

1409. The 11th, John Law, William Chichley; mayor, Richard Marlow, ironmonger.

A great play at Skinners’ well, which lasted eight days, and was of matter from the Creation of the world; the most part of all the great estates of England were there to behold it.

1410. The 12th, John Penne, Thomas Pike; mayor, Thomas Knoles, grocer.

This Thomas Knoles began anew to build the Guildhall in London, etc.

1411. The 13th, John Rainwel, William Cotton; mayor, Robert Chichley, grocer.

[460]

1412. The 14th, Raph Lovinhinde, William Sevenocke; mayor, William Waldren, mercer.

Henry V. began his reign, the 20th of March, the year 1412.

1413. The 1st sheriffs, John Sutton, John Michell; mayor, William Cromar, draper.

Sir John Oldcastle assembled a great power in Fickets field, by London, which power was overcome and taken by the king and his power.

1414. The 2nd, John Michell, Thomas Allen; mayor, Th. Falconer, mercer.

This mayor caused the postern called Moregate to be built, and he lent to the king ten thousand marks upon jewels, etc.

1415. The 3rd, William Cambridge, Alen Everard; mayor, Nicholas Wotton, draper.

1416. The 4th, Robert Whittington, John Coventrie; mayor, Henry Barton, skinner.

This Henry Barton ordained lanthorns with lights to be hanged out on the winter evening betwixt Hallontide[305] and Candlemasse.

1417. The 5th, H. Read, John Gidney; mayor, Richard Marlow, ironmonger.

1418. The 6th, John Brian, Raph Barton, John Parnesse; mayor, William Sevenoke.

This William Sevenoke, son to William Rumsched of Sevenoke in Kent, was by his father bound an apprentice with Hugh de Bois, citizen and ferrer of London, for a term of years, which being expired in the year 1394, the 18th of Richard II., John Hadley being mayor of London, and Stephen Spilman, chamberlain of the Guildhall, he alleged that his master had used the trade or mystery of a grocer, and not of a ferrer, and therefore required to be made free of the grocers’ company, which was granted. This William Sevenoke founded in the town of Sevenoke a free school, and alms houses for the poor.

1419. The 7th, Robert Whittington, John Butler; mayor, Richard Whittington, mercer.

This mayor founded Whittington college.

1420. The 8th, John Butler, John Wels; mayor, William Cambridge, grocer.

1421. The 9th, Richard Gosseline, William Weston; mayor, Robert Chichley, grocer.

[461]

This mayor gave one plot of ground, thereupon to build the parish church of St. Stephen upon Walbrooke.

Henry VI. began his reign the 31st of August, the year 1422.

1422. The 1st sheriffs, William Eastfield, Robert Tatarsal; mayor, William Waldern, mercer.

This year the west gate of London was begun to be built by the executors of Richard Whitington.

1423. The 2nd, Nicholas James, Thomas Windford; mayor, William Cromer, draper.

1424. The 3rd, Simon Seman, John Bywater; mayor, John Michel, fishmonger.

1425. The 4th, William Melreth, John Brokell; mayor, John Coventrie, mercer.

1426. The 5th, John Arnold, John Higham; mayor, John Reinwell, fishmonger.

This mayor gave tenements to the city for the discharge of three wards in London for fifteens, etc.

1427. The 6th, Henry Frowicke, Robert Oteley; mayor, John Gidney, draper.

1428. The 7th, Thomas Duffehouse, John Abbot; mayor, Henry Barton, skinner.

1429. The 8th, William Russe, Raph Holland; mayor, William Eastfield, mercer.

Raph Holland gave to impotent poor, one hundred and twenty pounds, to prisoners eighty pounds, to hospitals forty pounds, etc.

1430. The 9th, Walter Chartesey, Robert Large; mayor, Nicholas Wootton, draper.

Walter Chartesey, draper, gave to the poor one hundred pounds, besides twenty pounds to the hospitals, etc.

1431. The 10th, John Aderley, Stephen Browne; mayor, John Wels, grocer.

This John Wels, a great benefactor to the new building of the chapel by the Guildhall, and of his goods the standard in West Cheape was made.

1432. The 11th, John Olney, John Paddesley; mayor, John Patneis, fishmonger.

1433. The 12th, Thomas Chalton, John Ling; mayor, John Brokle, draper.

1434. The 13th, Thomas Barnewell, Simon Eyre; mayor, Roger Oteley, grocer.

[462]

1435. The 14th, Thomas Catworth, Robert Clopton; mayor, Henry Frowicke, mercer.

1436. The 15th, Thomas Morsted, William Gregorie; mayor, John Michel, fishmonger.

1437. The 16th, William Hales, William Chapman; mayor, Sir William Eastfield, mercer.

This Sir William Eastfield, knight of the Bath, a great benefactor to the water-conduits.

1438. The 17th, Hugh Diker, Nicholas Yoo; mayor, Stephen Brown, grocer.

Wheat sold for three shillings the bushel; but this man sent into Prussia, and caused to be brought from thence certain ships laden with rye, which did great relief.

1439. The 18th, Philip Malpas, Robert Marshal; mayor, Robert Large, mercer.

Philip Malpas at his decease gave one hundred and twenty pounds to poor prisoners, and every year for five years four hundred and three shirts and smocks, forty pairs of sheets, and one hundred and fifty gowns of frieze to the poor, to poor maids’ marriages one hundred marks, to highways one hundred marks, and to five hundred poor people in London every one six shillings and eight pence, etc.

1440. The 19th, John Sutton, William Wetinhall; mayor, John Paddesley, goldsmith, master of the works of money in the Tower of London.

1441. The 20th, William Combis, Richard Rich; mayor, Robert Clopton, draper.

1442. The 21st, Thomas Beamont, Richard Morden; mayor, John Hatherley, ironmonger.

1443. The 22nd, Nicholas Wilforde, John Norman; mayor, Thomas Catworth, grocer.

1444. The 23rd, Stephen Forstar, Hugh Witch; mayor, Henry Frowicke, mercer.

This year Paul’s steeple was fired with lightning, and hardly quenched.

1445. 24th, John Darby, Godfrey Fielding; mayor, Simon Eyre, draper.

This Simon Eyre built the Leaden hall in London, to be a common garner for the city, etc.

1446. The 25th, Robert Horne, Godfrey Bolaine; mayor, John Olney, mercer.

1447. The 26th, William Abraham, Thomas Scot; mayor, John Sidney, draper.

[463]

1448. The 27th, William Catlow, William Marrow; mayor, Stephen Browne, grocer.

1449. The 28th, William Hulin, Thomas Caninges; mayor, Thomas Chalton, mercer.

This year Jack Cade, a rebel of Kent, came to London, entered the city, etc.

1450. The 29th, I. Middleton, William Deere; mayor, Nicholas Wilforde, grocer.

Soldiers made a fray against the mayor the same day he took his charge at Westminster.

1451. The 30th, Matthew Philip, Christopher Warton; mayor, William Gregory, skinner.

1452. The 31st, Richard Lee, Richard Alley; mayor, Godfrey Fielding, mercer, of council to Henry VI. and Edward IV.

This year was a great fray at the wrestling.

1453. The 32nd, John Waldron, Thomas Cooke; mayor, John Norman, draper.

This John Norman was the first mayor that was rowed to Westminster by water, for before that time they rode on horseback.

1454. The 33rd, John Field, W. Taylor; mayor, Stephen Forstar, fishmonger.

This Stephen Forstar enlarged Ludgate, for the ease of prisoners there, etc.

1455. The 34th, John Yong, Thomas Olgrave; mayor, William Marrow, grocer.

The mercers’ servants made a riot upon the Lombards and other strangers.

1456. The 35th, John Steward, Raph Verney; mayor, Thomas Caning, grocer.

1457. The 36th, William Edwards, Thomas Reiner; mayor, Godfrey Boloine, mercer.

This Godfrey Boloine gave one thousand pounds to poor householders in London, etc.

1458. The 37th, Ralph Joceline, Richard Medham; mayor, Thomas Scot, draper.

1459. The 38th, John Plommar, John Stockar; mayor, William Hulin, fishmonger.

1460. 39th, Richard Fleming, John Lambard; mayor, Richard Lee, grocer.

Edward IV. began his reign the 4th of March, in the year 1460, after the account of the Church of England.

[464]

1461. The 1st sheriffs, George Ireland, John Locke; mayor, Hugh Witch, mercer.

1462. The 2nd, William Hampton, Bartholomew James; mayor, Thomas Cooke, draper, made knight of the Bath in the 5th of Edward IV. and had great troubles after.

1463. The 3rd, Robert Baslet, Thomas Muschampe; mayor, Matthew Philip, goldsmith, made knight of the Bath the 5th of Edward IV., and after in the field, the 10th of Edward IV.

1464. The 4th, John Tate, John Stone; mayor, Raph Joceline, draper, knight of the Bath, and also in the field.

1465. The 5th, Henry Waver, William Constantine; mayor, Raph Verney, mercer. Henry Waver, one of the sheriffs, made knight of the Bath.

1466. The 6th, John Browne, Henry Brice; mayor, John Yong, grocer, made knight in the field.

This year began the troubles of Sir Thomas Cooke, and other aldermen, as ye may read in my Summary.

1467. The 7th, Thomas Stalbroke, Humfrey Heyford; mayor, Thomas Oldgrave, skinner.

1468. The 8th, Symon Smith, William Hariot; mayor, William Taylor, grocer.

This mayor gave tenements to discharge Cordwainer street ward of fifteens.

1469. The 9th, Richard Gardener, Robert Drope; mayor, Richard Lee, grocer.

This year the Tower of London being delivered to the mayor and his brethren, they delivered King Henry from thence.

1470. The 10th, Sir John Crosbie, John Ward; mayor, Sir John Stockton, mercer.

Thomas the Bastard Fauconbridge, with a riotous company, set upon this city at Aldgate, Bishopsgate, the Bridge, etc., and twelve aldermen, with the recorder, were knighted in the field by Edward IV., to wit, John Stockton, mayor, Raph Verney, late mayor, John Yong, later mayor, William Tayler, late mayor, Richard Lee, late mayor, Matthew Philips, late mayor, George Ireland, William Stoker, William Hampton, since mayor, Thomas Stolbroke, John Crosbie, and Bartlemew James, since mayor, with Thomas Urswike, recorder.

1471. The 11th, John Allin, John Shelley; mayor, William Edward, grocer.

The water-conduit at Aldermanburie, and the standard in Fleet street were finished.

[465]

1472. The 12th, John Browne, Thomas Bedlow; mayor, Sir William Hampton, fishmonger.

This Sir William Hampton punished strumpets, and caused stocks to be set in every ward to punish vagabonds.

1473. The 13th, Sir William Sokar, Robert Belisdon; mayor, John Tate, mercer.

This year the sheriffs of London were appointed each of them to have sixteen serjeants, every serjeant to have his yeoman, and six clerks, to wit, a secondary, a clerk of the papers, and four other clerks, besides the under-sheriff’s clerks.

1474. The 14th, Edmond Shaw, Thomas Hill; mayor, Robert Drope, draper.

This Robert Drope increased the water-conduit upon Cornhill, etc.

1475. The 15th, Hugh Brice, Robert Colwich; mayor, Robert Basset, salter.

This Robert Basset corrected the bakers and other victuallers of this city.

1476. The 16th, Richard Rawson, William Horne; mayor, Sir Raph Joceline, draper, knight of the Bath.

By the diligence of this mayor the walls of the city were repaired.

1477. The 17th, Henry Collet, John Stoker; mayor, Humphrey Hayford, goldsmith.

1478. The 18th, Robert Harding, Robert Bifield; mayor, Richard Gardener, mercer.

Robert Bifield, sheriff, was fined by the mayor, and paid fifty pounds toward the water-conduits.

1479. The 19th, Thomas Ilam, John Warde; mayor, Sir Bartholomew James, draper, made knight in the field by Edward IV.

Thomas Ilam newly built the great conduit in West Cheape.

1480. The 20th, Thomas Daniel, William Bacon; mayor, John Browne, mercer.

1481. The 21st, Robert Tate, William Wiking; mayor, William Hariot, draper.

1482. The 22nd, William Whit, John Mathew; mayor, Edmond Sha, goldsmith.

This Edmond Sha caused the postern called Cripplesgate to be newly built, etc.

Edward V. began his reign the 9th of April, in the year 1483.

Richard III. began his reign the 22nd of June, in the year 1483.

[466]

1483. The 1st sheriffs, Thomas Norland, William Martin; mayor, Robert Bilisden, haberdasher.

1484. The 2nd, Richard Chester, Thomas Brittaine, Raphe Austrie; mayor, Thomas Hill, grocer, Sir William Stoaker, draper, John Ward, grocer.

Three sheriffs and three mayors this year by means of the sweating sickness, etc. Thomas Hill appointed by his testament the water-conduit in Grasse street to be built.

Henry VII. began his reign the 22nd of August, in the year 1485.

1485. The 1st sheriffs, John Tate, John Swan; mayor, Hugh Brise, goldsmith.

This Hugh Brise was keeper of the king’s mints at London.

1486. The 2nd, John Percivall, Hugh Clopton; mayor, Henry Cellet, mercer.

The cross in Cheap was new built in beautiful manner.

1487. The 3rd, John Fenkell, William Remington; mayor, Sir William Horne, salter.

This William Horne made knight in the field by Henry VII., gave to the repairing of highways betwixt London and Cambridge five hundred marks, and to the preachers at Paul’s cross, etc.

1488. The 4th, W. Isaack, Raph Tilney; mayor, Robert Tate, mercer.

1489. The 5th, William Caple, John Brocke; mayor, W. White, draper.

1490. The 6th, Henry Cote, Robert Revell, Hugh Pemberton; mayor, John Mathew, mercer.

1491. The 7th, Thomas Wood, William Browne; mayor, Hugh Clopton, mercer.

Hugh Clopton built the great stone bridge at Stratford upon Haven in Warwickshire.

1492. The 8th, William Purchase, William Welbecke; mayor, William Martin, skinner.

A riot made upon the Esterlings by the mercers’ servants and other.

1493. The 9th, Robert Fabian, John Winger; mayor, Sir Raph Astrie, fishmonger, made knight by Henry VII.

Robert Fabian, alderman, made Fabian’s Chronicle, a painful labour, to the honour of the city, and the whole realm.

1494. The 10th, Nicholas Alwine, John Warner; mayor, Richard Chawry, salter.

[467]

1495. The 11th, Thomas Knesworth, Henry Somer; mayor, Henry Colet, mercer.

1496. The 12th, Sir John Sha, Sir Richard Haddon; mayor, Sir John Tate, the younger, mercer.

The king made this mayor, Robert Shefield, recorder, and both the sheriffs, knights, for their good service against the rebels at Black Hith field.

1497. The 13th, Bartlemew Read, Thomas Windout; mayor, W. Purchase, mercer.

All the gardens in the Morefield were destroyed, and made plain ground.

1498. Thomas Bradbury, Stephen Jeninges; mayor, Sir John Percevall, made knight in the field by King Henry VII.

1499. The 15th, James Wilford, Thomas Brond; mayor, Nicholas Alwin, mercer.

This Nicholas Alwin gave to three thousand poor people in London twelve pence the piece, and to three thousand in the town of Spalding, the like, etc.

1500. The 16th, John Hawes, William Steede; mayor, W. Remington, fishmonger.

1501. The 17th, Lawrence Ailmer, Henry Hede; mayor, Sir John Sha, goldsmith, made knight in the field by Henry VII.

This Sir John Sha caused his brethren the aldermen to ride from the Guildhall unto the water’s side, where he took his barge to Westminster; he was sworn by the king’s council: he commonly in the afternoons kept a court alone, called before him many matters, and redressed them.

1502. The 18th, Henry Kebel, Nicholas Nines; mayor, Bartlemew Reade, goldsmith.

1503. The 19th, Christopher Hawes, Robert Wats, Thomas Granger; mayor, Sir William Capell, draper, made knight by Henry VII.

This Sir William caused a cage in every ward to be set for punishing of vagabonds.

1504. The 20th, Roger Acheley, William Brown; mayor, John Winger, grocer.

1505. The 21st, Richard Shore, Roger Grove; mayor, Thomas Knesworth, fishmonger.

This Thomas Knesworth appointed the water-conduit at Bishopsgate to be built, etc.

1506. The 22nd, William Copenger, Thomas Johnson, William Fitzwilliams, merchant-tailor, after of council to Henry VIII.; mayor, Sir Richard Haddon, mercer.

[468]

1507. The 23rd, William Butler, John Kirkby; mayor, William Browne, mercer, for part, Lawrence Ailmer, draper.

1508. The 24th, Thomas Exmew, Richard Smith; mayor, Stephen Jeninges, merchant-tailor.

This Stephen Geninges built the greatest part of St. Andrewes church called Undershaft. He built a free-school at Ulfrunehampton in Staffordshire, etc.

Henry VIII. began his reign the 22nd of April, the year 1509.

1509. The 1st sheriffs, George Monoxe, John Doget; mayor, Thomas Bradbury, mercer, for part, Sir William Caple, draper.

1510. The 2nd, John Milborne, John Rest; mayor, Henry Keble, grocer.

This Henry Keble gave one thousand pounds toward the new building of his parish church of Aldermary.

1511. The 3rd, Nicholas Shelton, Thomas Mirfine; mayor, Roger Achiley, draper.

This Roger Achiley provided corn for service of this city in great plenty. He caused the same to be stowed up in the common garner called Leaden hall.

1512. The 4th, Robert Aldarnes, Robert Fenrother; mayor, Sir William Copinger, fishmonger, for part, Richard Haddon, mercer, for the rest.

Sir W. Copinger gave half his goods to his wife, and the other half to the poor that had most need.

1513. The 5th, John Dawes, John Bridges, Roger Bafford; mayor, W. Browne, mercer, and John Tate, mercer.

This John Tate new built the church of St. Anthonies hospital in London.

1514. The 6th, James Yarford, John Monday; mayor, George Monoux, draper.

1515. The 7th, Henry Warley, Richard Grey, W. Bayly; mayor, Sir William Butler, grocer.

1516. The 8th, Thomas Seimer, John Thurstone; mayor, John Rest, grocer.

1517. The 9th, Thomas Baldrie, Raph Simondes; mayor, Sir Thomas Exmew, goldsmith.

Sir Thomas Exmew made the water-conduit in London wall by Mooregate, etc.

1518. The 10th, John Allen, James Spencer; mayor, Thomas Mirfin, skinner.

1519. The 11th, John Wilkenson, Nicholas Partrich; mayor. Sir James Yarford, mercer.

[469]

From this time the mayors of London, for the most part, have been knighted by courtesy of the kings, and not otherwise.

1520. The 12th, Sir John Skevington, John Kyme; mayor, Sir John Bruge, draper.

1521. The 13th, John Breton, Thomas Pargetor; mayor, Sir John Milborne, draper.

This Sir John Milborne founded fourteen alms houses by the Crossed Fryers church, etc.

1522. The 14th, John Rudstone, John Champneis; mayor, Sir John Mundy, goldsmith.

1523. The 15th, Michael English, Nicholas Jenines; mayor, Sir T. Baldry, mercer.

1524. The 16th, Raph Dodmer, William Roch; mayor, Sir W. Bayly, draper.

1525. The 17th, John Caunton, Christopher Askew; mayor, Sir John Allen, mercer.

1526. The 18th, Stephen Peacocke, Nicholas Lambert; mayor, Sir Thomas Seamer, mercer.

1527. The 19th, John Hardy, William Holles; mayor, Sir James Spencer, vintner.

1528. The 20th, Raph Warren, John Long; mayor, Sir John Rudstone, draper.

1529. The 21st, Michael Dormer, Walter Champion; mayor, Sir Raph Dodmer, mercer.

This year it was decreed that no man should be mayor of London more than one year.

1530. The 22nd, William Dauntsey, Richard Champion; mayor, Sir T. Pargitor, salter.

1531. The 23rd, Richard Gresham, Edward Altham; mayor, Sir Nicholas Lambard, grocer.

1532. The 24th, Richard Reynoldes, Nicholas Pinchon, John Martin, John Prist; mayor, Sir Stephen Pecocke, haberdasher.

1533. The 25th, William Forman, Sir T. Kitson; mayor, Sir Christopher Askew, draper.

1534. The 26th, Nicholas Levison, W. Denham; mayor, Sir John Chamneis, skinner.

1535. The 27th, Humfrey Munmoth, John Cootes; mayor, Sir John Allen, mercer. By the king’s appointment he was of his council. A man of great wisdom, and also of great charity.

The forenamed sheriffs, Munmouth and Cootes, put away twelve serjeants and twelve yeomen, but were by a common council forced to take them again.

[470]

1536. The 28th, Robert Paget, William Boyer; mayor, Sir Raph Waren, mercer.

1537. The 29th, Sir John Gresham, Thomas Lewen; mayor, Sir Richard Gresham, mercer.

1538. The 30th, William Welkenson, Nicholas Gibson; mayor, William Forman, haberdasher.

1539. The 31st, John Feiry, Thomas Huntlow; mayor, Sir W. Holles, mercer.

1540. The 32nd, Sir William Laxton, Martin Bowes; mayor, Sir William Roch, draper.

1541. The 33rd, Rowland Hill, Henry Suckley; mayor, Sir Michael Dormer, mercer.

1542. The 34th, Henry Habberthorne, Henry Amcotes; mayor, John Cootes, salter.

1543. The 35th, John Toleus, Richard Dobbes; mayor, Sir W. Bowyer, draper, for part, Sir Raph Waren, mercer.

1544. The 36th, John Wilford, Andrew Jude; mayor, Sir W. Laxton, grocer.

1545. The 37th, George Barnes, Ralph Alley; mayor, Sir Martin Bowes, goldsmith.

1546. The 38th, Richard Jarveis, Thomas Curteis; mayor, Sir Henry Hubbathorne, merchant-tailor.

Edward VI. began his reign the 28th of January, in the year 1546.

1547. The 1st sheriffs, Thomas White, Robert Charsey; mayor, Sir John Gresham, mercer.

1548. The 2nd, William Locke, Sir John Ailife; mayor, Sir Henry Amcotes, fishmonger.

1549. The 3rd, Richard Turke, John Yorke; mayor, Rowland Hill, mercer.

1550. The 4th, Augustine Hind, John Lyon; mayor, Sir Andrew Jude, skinner.

1551. The 5th, John Lamberd, John Cowper; mayor, Sir Richard Dobbes, skinner.

1552. The 6th, William Gerard, John Maynard; mayor, Sir George Barnes, haberdasher.

Queen Mary began her reign, the 6th of July, the year 1553.

1553. The 1st sheriffs, Thomas Ofley, William Huet; mayor, Sir Thomas White, merchant-tailor.

This Thomas White founded St. John’s college, in Oxford. He gave to the city of Bristow two thousand pounds.

[471]

1554. The 2nd, David Woodrofe, William Chester; mayor, Sir John Lion, grocer.

1555. The 3rd, Thomas Leigh, John Machil; mayor, Sir William Gerard, haberdasher.

1556. The 4th, William Harper, John White; mayor, Sir Thomas Ofley, merchant-tailor.

1557. The 5th, Richard Malorie, James Aitham; mayor, Sir Thomas Curteis, fishmonger.

1558. The 6th, John Halse, Richard Champion; mayor, Sir Thomas Legh, mercer.

Queen Elizabeth began her reign, the 17th of November, in the year of Christ 1558.

1559. The 1st sheriffs, Thomas Lodge, Roger Martin; mayor, Sir William Huet, clothworker.

1560. The 2nd, Christopher Draper, Thomas Row; mayor, Sir William Chester, draper.

This year the merchant-tailors founded their notable free-school for poor men’s children, etc.

1561. The 3rd, Alexander Avenon, Humfrey Baskervile; mayor, Sir William Harper, merchant-tailor.

1562. The 4th, William Alin, Richard Chamberlaine; mayor, Sir Thomas Lodge, grocer.

1563. The 5th, Edward Bankes, Rowland Heyward; mayor, Sir John White, grocer.

1564. The 6th, Edward Jackeman, Lionel Ducket; mayor, Sir Richard Malorie, mercer.

1565. The 7th, John Rivers, James Hawes; mayor, Sir Richard Champion, draper.

1566. The 8th, Richard Lambert, Ambrose Nicholas, John Langley; mayor, Sir Christopher Draper, ironmonger.

1567. The 9th, Thomas Ramsey, William Bond; mayor, Sir Roger Martin, mercer.

1568. The 10th, John Oleph, Robert Harding, James Bacon; mayor, Sir Thomas Row, merchant-tailor.

1569. The 11th, Henry Becher, William Dane; mayor, Alexander Avenon, ironmonger.

1570. The 12th, Francis Bernam, William Box; mayor, Sir Rowland Heyward, clothworker.

1571. The 13th, Henry Miles, John Braunch; mayor, Sir William Allin, mercer.

1572. The 14th, Richard Pipe, Nicholas Woodrofe; mayor, Sir Lionel Ducket, mercer.

[472]

1573. The 15th, James Harvy, Thomas Pullison; mayor, Sir J. Rivers, grocer.

1574. The 16th, Thomas Blanke, Anthony Gamage; mayor, James Hawes, clothworker.

1575. The 17th, Edward Osborne, Wolstane Dixie; mayor, Ambrose Nicholas, salter.

1576. The 18th, William Kimpton, George Barne; mayor, Sir John Langley, goldsmith.

1577. The 19th, Nicholas Backhouse, Francis Bowyer; mayor, Sir Thomas Ramsey, grocer.

1578. The 20th, George Bond, Thomas Starkie; mayor, Sir Richard Pipe, draper.

1579. The 21st, Martin Calthrope, John Hart; mayor, Sir Nicholas Woodrofe, haberdasher.

1580. The 22nd, Ralph Woodcock, John Alate; mayor, Sir John Branch, draper.

1581. The 23rd, Richard Martin, William Webbe; mayor, Sir James Harvie, ironmonger.

1582. The 24th, William Roe, John Hayden, Cuthbert Buckle; mayor, Sir Thomas Blancke, haberdasher.

1583. The 25th, William Masham, John Spencer; mayor, Edward Osborne, clothworker.

1584. The 26th, Stephen Slany, Henry Billingsley; mayor, Sir Thomas Pullison, draper.

1585. The 27th, Anthony Radclife, Henry Pranell; mayor, Sir Wolstane Dixie, skinner.

1586. The 28th, Robert House, William Elkin; mayor, Sir George Barne, haberdasher.

1587. The 29th, Thomas Skinner, John Katcher; mayor, Sir George Bond, haberdasher.

1588. The 30th, Hugh Ofley, Richard Saltenstall; mayor, Sir Martin Calthorpe, draper, for part, and Richard Martin, goldsmith, for the rest of that year.

1589. The 31st, Richard Gurney, Stephen Some; mayor, Sir John Hart, grocer.

1590. The 32nd, Nicholas Mosley, Robert Broke; mayor, John Allot, fishmonger, for part, Sir Rowland Heyward, clothworker, for the rest.

1591. The 33rd, William Rider, Benet Barnham; mayor, Sir William Webb, salter.

1592. The 34th, John Garrard, Robert Taylor; mayor, Sir William Roe, ironmonger.

1593. The 35th, Paule Banning, Peter Hauton; mayor, Sir[473] Cuthbert Buckle, vintner, for part, Sir Richard Martin, goldsmith, for the rest.

1594. The 36th, Robert Lee, Thomas Benet; mayor, Sir John Spencer, clothworker.

1595. The 37th, Thomas Low, Leonard Holiday; mayor, Sir Stephen Slany, skinner.

1596. The 38th, John Wattes, Richard Godard; mayor, Thomas Skinner, clothworker, for part, Sir Henry Billingsley, haberdasher.

1597. The 39th, Henry Roe, John More; mayor, Sir Richard Saltenstall, skinner.

1598. The 40th, Edward Holmeden, Robert Hampson; mayor, Sir Stephen Some, grocer.

1599. The 41st, Humfrey Welde, grocer, Roger Clarke, salter; mayor, Sir Nicholas Mosley, clothworker.

1600. The 42nd, Thomas Cambell, ironmonger, Thomas Smith, haberdasher, William Craven, merchant-tailor; mayor, Sir William Rider, haberdasher.

1601. The 43rd, Henry Anderson, girdler; William Glover, dyer; mayor, Sir John Garrard, haberdasher.

1602. The 44th, James Pemberton, goldsmith, John Swinerton, merchant-tailor; mayor, Robert Lee, merchant-tailor.

Thus much for the chief and principal governors of this famous city; of whose public government, with the assistance of inferior officers, their charges for keeping of the peace, service of the prince, and honour of this city, much might have been said, and I had thought to have touched more at large; but being informed that a learned gentleman (James Dalton, a citizen born), minded such a labour, and promised to perform it, I have forborne and left the same to his good leisure, but he being now lately deceased without finishing any such work (a common fault to promise more than to perform), and I hear not of any other that taketh it in hand, I have been divers times minded to add certain chapters to this book, but being (by the good pleasure of God) visited with sickness, such as my feet (which have borne me many a mile) have of late years refused, once in four or five months, to convey me from my bed to my study, and therefore could not do as I would.

At length, remembering I had long since gathered notes to have chaptered, am now forced to deliver them unperfected, and desire the readers to pardon me, that want not will to pleasure them.