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The London Wards - Lime street Ward in 1756

Lime street Ward in 1756 neatly engraved from a New Survey

Lime street Ward in 1756 neatly engraved from a New Survey

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Index of London wards in 1756 by William Maitland

Chap. XXV.

Lime street Ward.

With a Plan, neatly engraved from a New Survey.

Its Name. Bounds. Extent. Modern State. Alderman and Common Councilmen. Leadenhall. East India house. Antiquities.

This Ward takes its Name from Lime street, a Place in ancient Times where Lime was either made or sold in publick Market.
It is bounded on the East and North by Aldgate Ward, on the West by Bishopsgate Ward, and on the South by Langbourn Ward: And the East Side ol this Lime street, from the North Corner thereof to the midst, is of Aldgate Ward, as is aforesaid; the West Side, for the most Part, from the North Corner Southward, is of this Lime street Ward; the South End on both Sides is of Langbourn Ward. The Body of this Lime street Ward is of the high Street called Leadenhall street, which stretcheth from Lime street on the South Side to the West. Corner of Leadenhall, and on the North Side, from the South West Corner of St. Mary street, to another Corner over against Leadenhall.

Now for St. Mary ax street, the West Side thereof is of this Lime street Ward, and also Camomile street, which runneth by the North End of this St. Mary ax street, on both Sides; from thence West to the Wrestlers, a Sign so called, almost to Bishopsgate. And these are the Bounds of this small Ward.

To describe the modern State of this Ward, we begin with Leadenhall street, which is spacious, State of populous, and well inhabited ; but the houses escaping the great Fire Anno 1666, art not so sightly and uniform. In this Street are these Places : Sharp's alley, seated against the East India house, indifferent good. Tokenhouse yard, but small, has a Passage into Leadenhall. The East India house, on the South Side of the Street, formerly Sir William Craven's, a very iarge Building, with spacious Rooms, very commodious for such a publick Concern. It hath a large Hall and Court yard for the Reception of People who have Business here, to attend on the Company on their Court Days. There belongs to it also a Garden, with Warehouses in the back Part toward Lime street ; into which there is a back Gate for the Entrance of Carts to bring their Goods into their Warehouses. This house did belong to the Earl of Craven, and was lett by him to this Company at a yearly Rent.

Limestreet, a Place well inhabited by Merchants and others of Repute. About the middle of the Street is a Place called gueen's square, or Queens square Passage, as leading into Leadenhall Market, a well built Place, with a Free stone Pavement. On the Ground on which this Place is built was a large house, the Habitation of a Merchant, and anciently supposed to belong to the Kings and Queens.

St. Mary ax goes out of Leadenhall street, and runs Northwards to Camomile street by London wall. It is a Street graced with good Buildings, and much inhabited by eminent Merchants. Out of this Street, and almost over against St. Andrews Undershaft Church, is a Passage into Great St. Helens; and towards the North End is Sopers yard, a very mean Place.
Camomile street hath but a small Part in this Ward, not above two hundred Feet from St. Mary ax, and the rest in Aldgate Ward.

To this Ward belong an Alderman and four Common Councilmen, including the Deputy, four Constables, two Scavengers, sixteen Ward
mote Inquestmen, and a Beadle. It is taxed to the Fifteenth at one Pound nineteen Shillings and two Pence.
There are to watch at the several Stands in this Ward, every Night, a Constable, the Beadle, and eleven Watchmen.
The Jurymen returned by the Wardmote Inquest for this Ward are to serve as Jurors in the several Courts in Guildhall in the Month of November.

The Alderman of this Ward is John Porter, Esq , The Common Councilmen are, Mr. Samuel Southhouse, Deputy, Mr. William Burgess, Mr. Launc. Shadwell, Mr. George Mason.

There is no Church in this Ward, but it runs through several Parishes. in this Ward
The most remark able are,
(1.) Leadenhall, which in 1309 belonged to Sir Hugh Nevil, Knt. And the Lady Alice, his Widow, made a Feoffment thereof, by the Name of Leadenhall, with the Advowsons of the Church of St. Peter on Cornhill, and other Churches, to Richard Earl of Arundel and Surry, 1362.
More, in the Year 1380, Alce Nevil, Widow to Sir John Nevil, Knt. of Essex, confirmed to Thomas Cogshall, and others, the said Manor of Leadenhall, and the Advowsons, &c.
In the Year 1384, Humfrey de Bobun, Earl of Hereford, had the said Manor : And, in the Year 1408, Robert Rikeden of Essex, and Margaret his Wife, confirmed to Richard Whittington, and other Citizens of London, the said Manor of Leadenhall, with the Appurtenances, the Advowson of St. Peter's, Church, St. Margaret Pattens, &c.
And, in the Year 1411, the said Whittington and others confirmed the same to the Mayor and Commonalty of London, whereby it came to the Possession of the City.
Then, in the Year 1443, the twenty first of Henry VI. John Hatherly, Mayor, purchased Licence of the said King to take up two hundred Fodder of Lead for the building ol Water Conduits, a common Granary, and the Cross in West Cheap, more richly, for the Honour of the City.

The Use of Leadenhall in my Youth (says Stow) was this: In the Part of the North Quadrant, on the East Side of the North Gate, were the common Beams for weighing of Wool and other Wares, as had been accustomed. On the West Side of the Gate were the Scales to weigh Meal.
The other three Sides were reserved, for the most Part, to the making and resting of the Pageants shewed at Midsummer in the Watch. The Remnant of the Sides and Quadrants was employed for the Stowage of Wool Sacks, but not closed up. The Lofts above were partly used by the Painters, in working for the decking of Pageants and other Devices, for beautifying of the Watch and Watchmen. The Residue of the Lofts were lett out to Merchants, the Wool winders and Packers therein to wind and pack their Wools.

Leadenhall is a very large Building of Free stone, containing within it three large Courts or Yards, all encompafled with Buildings ; wherein is kept a Market, one of the greatest, the best, and the market, most general for all Provisions in the City of London, nay, of the Kingdom, and, if I should say of all Europe, I should not give it too great a Praise. The Building hath flat Battlements, leaded at the Top. And, for the Convenience of People's coming to this great Market, (which is kept every Day of the Weeek except Sundays for one Thing or the other) besides the principal Entrance out of Leadenhall street, there are several others, three out of Limestreet, and the rest out of Gracechurch street.

Of the three Courts or Yards that it consists of, The Yards the first is that at the North East Corner of Gracechurch street, and opens into Leadenhall street. This Court or Yard contains in Length from North to South one hundred and sixty four Feet, and in Breadth from East to West eighty Feet.
Within this Court or Yard round about the same are about an hundred standing Stalls for Butchers for the selling only of Beef, and therefore this Court is called the Beef market ; many of which Stalls are eight, ten, or twelve Feet long, and four, five, or six Feet broad, with Racks, Hooks, Blocks, and all other Conveniences for the Sale of their Meat; all which Stalls are either under Warehouses above Head, or sheltered from the Weather by Roofs over them. This Yard is on Tuesdays a Market for Leather, to which the Tanners do Resort. On Thursdays the Waggons from Colchester and other Parts come with Baize, &c. and also theFelmongers with their Wool ; and on Fridays it is a Market for raw Hides, besides Saturdays for Beef, as also other Provisions.

The second Market yard is called the Green yard, as being once a green Plat of Ground ; afterwards it was the City's Store yard for Materials for building and the like, but now a Market only for Veal, Mutton, Lamb, &c. This Yard is an hundred and seventy Feet in Length from East to West, and ninety Feet broad rrom North to South. It hath in it an hundred and forty Stalls for the Butchers, all covered over, and of the Bigness of those in the Beef market. In the Tijhmngen middle of this Green yard Market, North to South, is a Row of Shops, with Kitchens or Rooms over them for Fishmongers ; and also on the South Side and West End are Houses and Shops for Fishmongers. Towards the East End of this Yard is erected a fair Market house, (standing upon Columns, with Vaults underneath and Rooms above, with a Bell Tower and a Clock, and under it are Butchers Stalls. The Tenements round about this Yard are for the most Part inhabited by Cooks, Victuallers, and such like, and in the Passages leading out of the Streets into this Market are Fishmongers, Poulterers, Cheesemongers, and such like Traders for Provision.
The third Market belonging to Leadenhall is called the Herb market, for that Herbs, Roots, Fruit, &c. are only there sold. This Market is about one hundred and forty Feet square. The West, East, and North Sides have Walks round them, covered over, for Shelter, and standing upon Columns ; in which Walks there are twenty eight Stalls for Gardeners, wich Cellars under them.
Being rebuilt in the Year 1730, it is now called the New Market, or Nashe's Rents, and hath Shops in it chiefly for Butchers, and a new Passage into Lime street. There is also in this Yard one Range of Stalls, covered over, for such as fell Tripe, Neats Feet, Sheeps Trotters, &c. And, on the South Side, the Tenements are taken up by Victuallers, Poulterers, Cheesemongers, Butchers, and such like. Beyond this are likewise some new Shops, built in the Year 1730, in that Part called the Old Bacon market, which are chiefly occupied by Poulterers, and such as deal in Bacons.

The general Conflagration of this City in 1666 terminated in that Part of the City near adjoining to this Hall; all the houses about it, and within the Yards belonging to it, being destroyed, there did of this Fabrick only remain the Stonework ; since which, the Courts and Yards belonging to this Building, and some other adjacent Grounds, purchased by the City, are wholly converted into a Market for the City's Use : The Place for the Reception of Country Butchers and others, who brought Provifions before to the City, being then only in Leadenhall Jtreet, between Gracechurch street and Lime street, which was very incommodious to the Market People, as well as to the Passengers.
The East India house, situate on the South Side of Leadenhall Jtreet, at about an hundred Feet West of Lime street Corner, was anciently the Site of a City Mansion, belonging to the Earl of Craven and his Anceftors. The present house was built by the honourable East India Company in the Year 1726.
The Front next the Street is very magnificent being a strong Stcne Building, with Pilasters and Entablature of the Dorick Order ; the rest of it is very spacious, having large Rooms for the Directors, and Offices for the Clerks. It hath a large Hall and Court yard, for the Reception of People who have Business here, to attend on the Company on their Court Days, which are every
Wednesday. There belongs to it also a Garden, with Warehouses in the back Part towards Lime street, into which there is a back Gate for the Entrance of Carts to bring in their Goods.
These Warehouses were rebuilt in a very handsome Manner in the Year 1725, and are now greatly enlarged, and not quite finished. The Company have likewise Warehouses in Seething lane, the Steel yard and the Royal Exchange, under the last of which they have Cellars entirely for Pepper.
While this new house was building, the Company transacted their Business in the old Custom house in Fencburch street.

The first East India Company was established by Charter in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, and since confirmed several Times, called, The Governor and Company of Merchants trading into the East Indies.
Here were first subscribed seven hundred and thirty nine thousand seven hundred and eighty two Pounds ten Shillings ; and a Year, or more, afterwards, by the additional Subacription of eight hundred and thirty four thouland eight hundred and twenty six Pounds, the Stock was made up one Million five hundred and seventy four thousand six hundred and eight Pounds ten Shillings.

In 1698 another Company was established by Act of Parliament, called, 'The Englists Company of Merchants trading to the East Indies, who, upon their Settlement, advanced to the Government two Millions Sterling; for which they had Interest given them at eight per Cent, per Annum: Of these two Millions the Members of the old Company subscribed three hundred and fifteen thousand Pounds ; which, with forty per Cent. more advanced, made up their Share of two Millions upon the Union. Subfcribers of five hundred Pounds, and upwards, have a Vote for chusing Directors, but none have more than one ; none of which Directors are to have less than two thousand Pounds in the Capital Stock of the Company.

All Goods imported by the Company are to be sold openly by Inch of Candle, on Pain of Forfeiture, one Half to the King, and the other to the Profecutor.
The Stock to be esteemed, in Law, Perfonal Estate, and the Shares exempt from Taxes.
No Member shall, in Respect to his Stock only, be judged a Bankrupt.
In the Year 1702, the twenty second of July, for the mutual Advantage and Satisfaction of both Companies, an Expedient was found out for the uniting of them, and a Charter of Union was granted them. The new Company joined fifteen Pounds per Cent, with as much of the old Company, which, with several Sums paid in afterwards, the Stock of the united Companies amounted to one hundred and seventy Pounds per Share ; and, upon the Return of the Effects of both Companies, the united Stock was to augment until they became one entire Company, which was to be in seven Years after the Union.
In Lime street are divers fair houses for Merchants and others : There was sometime a Mansion house of the King's, called the the King's Artirce, whereof I find Record in the 14th of Edward I. but now grown out of Knowledge. I read also of another great house in the West Side of Lime street, having a Chapel on the South, and a Garden on the West, then belonging to the Lord Nevill; which Garden is now called the Green yard of Leadenhall.

This house, in the ninth of Richard II. pertained to Sir Simon Burly, and Sir John Burley his Brother: Which said house was taken down afterwards, and the fore Front thereof new builded of Timber, by Hugh Offley, Alderman.

At the North West Corner of Lime street, was (of old Time) one great Messuage, called Benbridges Inn : Raphe Holland, Draper, about the Year 1452, gave it to John Gill, Master, and to the Wardens and Fraternity of Taylors, and Linen Armorers of St. John Baptist in London, and to their Successors for ever. They did set up in place thereof a fair large Frame of Timber, containing in the high Street one great house, and before it, to the Corner of Lime street, three other Tenements, the Corner house being the largest ; and then down Lime street divers proper Tenements. All which the Merchant Taylors in the Reign of Edward VI. sold to Stephen Kirton, Merchant Taylor and Alderman.

Next to it was a house, called the Leaden Pourch, afterwards divided into two Tenements, whereof one is a Tavern, and then one other house for a Merchant, likewise called the Leaden Porch.

In the Year 1576, partly at the Charges of the Parish of St. Andrew, and partly at the Charges of the Chamber of London, a Water Pump was raised in this high Street of Lime street Ward, near unto Lime street Corner. For the placing of the which Pump, having broken up the Ground, they were forced to dig more than two Fathom deep, before they came to any main Ground. Where they found a Hearth made of Roman Tile, every Tiie hall a Yard iquare, and old lime, about two Inches thick : They found Coal lying there also (for that lying whole will never consume.) Then digging one Fathom into the Main, they found Water sufficient, made their Prall, and set up the Pump, which Pump, with oft repairing and great Charges to the Parish, continued not twenty four Years, but, being rotten, was taken up, and a new one fet in the Place in the Year 1600. Thus much for the high Street.

In St. Mary street was (of old Time) a Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin, St. Urfula, and the 1000 Virgins, which Church was commonly called St. Mary at the Axe, of the Sign of an Axe over against the East End thereof, or St. Mary Pepillar, of a Plat of Ground lying on the North Side thereof, pertaining to the Skinners in London. This Parish, about the Year 1565, was united to the Parish Church of St. Andrew Underfhaft. And so was St. Mary at th Axe suppressed, and letten out to be a Warehouse for a
Merchant. Here is now a Free School kept. Against the East End of this Church was some time a fair Wall, now turned to a Pump.

Also against the North End of this St. Mary street, was sometime one other Parish Church of Church of St. Augustine, called St. Augustine in the Wall, for that it stood adjoining to the Wall of the City, and otherwise called St. Augustines Papey, or the Poor, as I have read in the Reign of Edward III.
In this Parish an Earl of Oxford had his Inn : And the last Will of Agnes Lady Bardclph, Anno 1403, was dated from hence, in these Words ; Hofpitio, &c. from the Inn of the Habitation of the Lord, the Earl of Oxenford, in the Parish of St. Augustines de Papey, London.

About the Year 1410, in the Reign of H. VI. the same Church was allowed to the Brethren of the Papey, the house of poor Priests, whereof I have spoken in Aldgale Ward.

The Parishioners of this Church were appointed to the Parish Church of Allhallows in the Wall, which is in Broad street Ward. This Brotherhood, called Papey, being suppressed, the Church of St. Augustine was pulled down ; and in place thereof one Grey, an Apothecary, builded a Stable, and a Hay loft. It is now a dwelling house, reserving the Church yard for a Garden plat. those two Parish Churches, both lying in the Ward of Lime street, being thus suppressed, there is not any one Parish Church or Place for Divine Service in that Ward ; but the Inhabitants thereof repair to Churches out of their Ward, namely to St. Peter upon Cornhill in Cornhill Ward, St. Andrew in Aldgate Ward, Allhallows in the Wall in Broad street Ward, and some to St. Dennis in Langborn Ward.

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