Faringdon without Ward in 1756 neatly engraved from a New Survey
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Index of London wards in 1756 by William Maitland
Of FARINGDON WARD Without.
With a Plan, neatly engraved from a New Survey.
Chap. XXIII. Of Faringdon Ward without. Its Name. Bounds. Extent. Modern State. Government. Alderman, Common Councilmen. Division. Remarkable Things. Parishes and Churches. The Temple and Temple Church. The Rolls Chapel. Barnards Inn. Thave's Inn. Cliffords Inn. Serjeants Inn, Six Clerk's office. Bridewell and Bartholomew's Hospital. Smithfield. Fleet Market, and Prison. Old bailey. Semons house. Surgeons hall. Temple bar. Antiquities. White friars.
This is the farthest Ward in the West of this City, and was originally a Part of the Ward of Faringdon within, till divided by Act of Parliament, 17 Rich. II. From which Time this Part has been distinguished by the Addition of without, i. e. without the City Walls.
It is bounded on the East by the Wards of Faringdon within, the Precinct of the late Priory of St. Bartholomew near Smithfield, and the Ward , of Aldersgate ; on the North, by the Charter house, the Parish of St. John's Clerkenwell, and Part of St. Andrew's Parish without the Freedom ; on the West, by High Holborn, and St. Clement's Parish in the Strand , on the South, by the River of Thames. So that, The Extent of this Ward may be gathered from the Bounds without Newgate and Ludgate,
which are these :
First, On "the East Part thereof is the whole Precinct. of the late Priory of St. Bartholomew, and a Part of Long lane, on the North, towards Aldersgate street ; and all Smithfield, to the Bars in St. John's street.
Then out of Smithfield, Chicken lane, towards Turnmill street. Back again by the Pens or Folds in Smithfield to Cow lane, which turns towards Holborn ; and Hosier lane out of Smithfield, also toward Holborn, till it meets with a Part of Cow lane.
Cock lane, out of Smithfield, over against Pie corner. Giltspur street, out of Smithfield to Newgate. Then from Newgate, West by St. Sepulchres Church, to Turnagain lane. From the Place where the Conduit stood on Snow hill to Holborn bridge, up Holbom hill, to the Bars, on both Sides.
On the Right Hand, or North Side, at the Bottom of Holborn hill, is Gold lane, commonly called Feild lane, some Time a filthy Passage into the Fields ; now both Sides built with small Tenements.
Then higher is Hatton garden street, and Lither lane, and Brook street, turning to the Fields.
On the Left Hand, or South Side, from Newgate, lieth a Street called the Old bailey ; this stretches down by the Wall of the City to Ludgate. On the West Side of which Street breaks out another Lane, called St. George' s lane, till you come unto the South End of Seacoal lane and then, turning towards Fleet street, it is called Fleet lane.
The next out of the High Street from Newgate, turning down South, is called the Little Bailey, and runs down to the East of St. Georges lane.
Then is Seacoal lane, which turns down into Fleet lane.
Near unto this Seacoal lane, in the Turning towards the Conduit on Snow hill, is another Lane called in Record Windagain lane, for that it turned down to Turnmill brook, and from thence back again, for there was no Way over.
Beyond Holborn bridge is Shoe lane, which runs out of Holborn unto the Conduit which stood in Fleet street.
Then is Fewtar's, now called Fetter lane, which likewise stretches South into Fleet street, by the East End of St. Dunstans Church ; and from this Lane to the Bars are the Bounds without Newgate.
Now without Ludgate, this Ward runs up from the said Gate to Temple bar, and hath on the Right Hand, or North Side, the South End of the Old bailey. Then it proceeds down Ludgate hill to Fleet lane, over Fleet bridge, and by Shoe lane, and Fewtar's lane, and so to New street or Chancery lane, and up that Lane to the house of the Rolls. Which house is also of this Ward.
And on the other Side to a Lane over against the Rolls, which formerly entered Ficquete's Field.
Near the Bar is another Lane, called Shire lane, because it divides the City from the Shire; and this turned into Ficquete's, Field.
From Ludgate again, on the left Hand, or South Side, we have Fleet bridge, Bride lane, which runs South by Bridewell; and Water lane, which runs down to the Thames. Then Whitefriars, and the Temple ; so that the Bar is the Extent of this Faringdon Ward Without.
In these Parts, from Ludgate, and so Westward, the City, in the Saxon Times, was chiefly situate, if we may credit Fabian ; who writes, That he had found in a very old Record, called Doom belonging to the City, that in King Egelred's, or Ethelred's Reign, which began in the Year 981, London had most houses or Buildings from Ludgate towards Westminster, and little or none where the Chief or Heart of the City now is, except in divers Places, but they stood without Order ; so that many Towns and Cities, as Canterbury, York, and others, surpassed London in Building in those Days.
We come next to the present State of this Ward.
To begin at the South Parts, viz. Ludgate hill and Fleet street, taking Notice, as we pass along, of all the Lanes and Alleys through which there lie Passages, in and out of the said Streets ; as on the North Side, beginning at Temple bar, there is Bell yard, Chancery lane, Fetter lane, Shoe lane, the Town ditch. Then on the South Side of the Street, White friars, Water lane, Salisbury court, Bridewell Precinct. Then the Street beginning near Ludgate; and passing from South to North, called Old bailey, which opens into the North Part of this Ward, as Snow hill, down to Holborn bridge. Then more North is Cow lane, Hosier lane, Cock lane, Chick lane, West Smithfield, Long lane, St. Bartholomews Close, and Hospital, Pye corner, &c. with all the smaller Courts and Alleys contained in these.
Ludgate hill comes down from Ludgate, and runs Westward to Fleet street ; from which it is severed by a handsome large Stone Bridge, the Breadth of the Street, which gives a Passage over the new Canal where Fleet ditch was ; which since the Fire of London was made so deep and wide, cut from Holborn bridge to the Mouth of the River Thames, that it received the Tides, and used to bring up Barges and Lighters to Holborn bridge ; but one Part of this, viz. from Fleet bridge to Holborn bridge, is now arched over, and made a complete Market place for Butchers, Poulterers, Gardeners, &c.
This Street, as also Fleet street, (into which it Falls) and so to Temple bar, is a great Thoroughfare for Coaches, Carts, horse and Foot Passengers ; being the great Way from London to Westminster, and the adjacent Parts. Both these Streets are therefore very spacious, graced with good Buildings of the first Rate, and well inhabited by Shop keepers of the best Trades ; as Woollen Drapers, Linnen Drapers, Grocers, Sadlers, Upholsterers, Booksellers, who drive a very considerable Trade : And for the Accommodation of this great Resort of People, here are divers noted Coffee houses and Taverns.
The Alleys, Courts, and Passages in Fleet Street, are, on the North Side, Shear lane, or Shire lane ; which gives Passage into Little Lincolns inn fields, formerly called Ficquete's field, but this Lane, being without the Freedom, will be spoken of under St. Clement's Parish. The like is Bell yard, near adjoining, except some small Part on the East Side, against Crown court, in Chancery lane, which may be rather termed a Street for Fairness and good Buildings : But there being but a little within the City Liberty, we shall speak of it in the Rolls Liberty, in which is the greatest Part. Flying horse court, but small, a Free stone Pavement; here is kept the Marshalsea Office, for the making out Writs, &c, Cliffords inn lane has on the West Side Houses, and on the East Side, St. Dunstans Church, it leads into Cliffords lane, one of the Inns of Chancery; which Place, of late Years, is much inlarged in new Buildings, in the Garden, an airy Place, and neatly kept ; the Garden being closed with, a Pallisado Pale, and adorned Rows of Lime Trees let round the Grass Plats and Gravel Walks. It has the the Conveniancy of three Doors ; the one into Serjeants inn in Chancery lane, another into Fetter lane, and a third into Fleet street. The Hall yet wants new Building.
Adjoining to Cliffords inn lane, and fronting Fleet street, is St. Dunstans Church.
And adjoining thereto, Eastward, is a small Place of several houses, which bears the Name of Hen and chicken court ; and near to this Court, Fetter lane falls into Fleet street, Fleuer de lis court, or rather Alley, being long, narrow and ordinary, with a Free stone Pavement, has three Outlets, two into Fetter lane, and another into West harding street. This Court is of small Repute, being but meanly inhabited ; the Buildings are on the East Side, the West being the Back yards to the houses in Fetter lane.
Two crane court, a very handsome open Place, with a Free stone Pavement, and graced with good Euildings, well inhabited by Persons of Repute ; the front house, larger than the rest, and ascended up by large Stone Steps, is in the Occupation of the Royal Society : In this House is kept their Museum, and here are the Meetings of the Fellows.
Red lion court, good and large, with a Free stone Pavement, has a Passage into West harding street, in Goldsmith's rents. Johnson's court has but a narrow Entrance, but opens into a square Court, with a Free stone Pavement and good houses, well inhabited. Out of this Court is another, which bears the same Name, but smaller, with one Row of houses, with pretty Gardens behind them, and this runs into Gough square, a Place lately built with very handsome houses, and well inhabited by Persons of Fashion.
St. Dunstans court has a narrow Entrance, but towards the upper End opens into two Parts, and both indifferent as to houses and Inhabitants. Bolt court, very good and open, with a Free stone Pavement, has good houses, well inhabited. Three king court, but small, having two or three houses. Hind court, large, and broad at the upper End, where the houses are much better built and inhabited, and to the Whole is a very good Free stone Pavement, cleanly kept. Wine office court, long, with a Free stone Pavement, has good houses on the West Side, the East Side having a dead Waii, where there is a Passage into White horse court; and at the upper End is another Passage into Gough square on one Side, and King 's head court on the other, which 1eads into Shoe lane on the Back side of Gunpowder alley. Three faulcon court. White horse Inn, large, and of good Resort for Coaches and Horses, and has some private houses in it.
White's court, but small. Peterborough court indifferent broad at the upper End, with a Free stone Pavement, and well inhabited. Racket court, seated betwixt Shoe lane and the Ditch side, a very spacious and handsome Place, with good houses, well inhabited, the front house takes up the Breadth of the Court. Poppings or Popingey alley has an open Passage, inhabited by Printers, Victuallers, Hatters, &c. Out of this Place is a Passage into Harp alley, which leads to Fleet ditch. Black horse alley, ordinary. Out of this Alley is a Passage to Fleet ditch.
Beyond Fleet bridge, on the North Side, and on Ludgate hill, is Bell savage Inn, very large. The first Yard is an open Square, with several private Houses in it ; the inner Yard, which is much larger, being taken up with Stabling, &c.
Fleuer de lis court, long and ordinary, haveing at the upper End a Passage into this Inn.
Sword and buckler court, also but ordinary, has a Passage into Fleuer de lis court. Adjoining to Ludgate is Half moon court, large, but none of the best ; at the Entrance is a Coffee house of a good Trade.
On the South Side of Ludgate hill is Oxenden corner, over against the Old bailey, well built and inhabited, with a Thoroughfare into Black friars. Dolphin court, small, having but one house, which is an Alehouse, and has the Sign of the Dolphin.
Goat alley, indifferent good, with a Free stone Pavement. White lion court, long, narrow, and ordinary, with a dark Entrance. Hanging sword alley, so called from a House of that Name, which is but ordinary, and leads into a Court so called, which has two Passages into Water lane, near adjoining. Bears head court, but ordinary, has a Passage into Bolt and tun Inn. Ram alley, taken up by Publick houses, being a Kind of privileged Place for Debtors, before the late Act of Parliament for taking them away : It has a Passage into the Temple, and into Serjeants Inn in Fleet Street.
Mitre court, an open Place, with a Free stone Pavement down into the Temple by Steps ; a Place much taken up by Publick houses : And this Place did pretend the like Privileges as Ram alley before the said Act. Falcon court, a good open Place, with a Free stone Pavement, in which are about four or five Houses. Hercules pillars alley, but narrow, and altogether inhabited by such as
keep Publick houses for Entertainment. On tne South West Side of Fleet street are the two Temples, called the Inner and Middle ; altho' the Buildings before the Fire were for the greatest Part of Timber, yet they wholly escaped the general Desolation : But since that Time have felt two great Fires, and both beginning within the confines of the houses, which destroyed almost all the Offices and Lodgings in the several Courts; but the Church and both the Halls escaped.
Since which Fires the Property of some of the Courts, and mod of the Buildings, have been altered, as to their former Position ; but again rebuilt in a most beautiful uniform Manner, very lofty, and more substantial and convenient than before, and all of Brick. these two Temples take up a large Track of Ground backwards, having no visible Front to the Street, only the two Gates at the Entrance into the Middle Temple lane, and that leading to the Inner Temple ; in both which are Chambers for the Students in the Law ; and backwards they are furnished with divers large and fair Courts, garnished with lofty Buildings, all of Brick, and uniform, viz. Exchequer court, Tanfield court, Cloisters court, Hare court, Vine court, Fig tree court, Elm court, Pump ourt,
Middle Temple ball court. Brick court, and Essex court.
At the lower End of Middle Temple lane is a large and handsome Pair of Stairs of Free stone, for taking Water at, much Resorted to.
These Temples have a Passage into Whitefriars by a Gate, into Fleet street through Mitre court, Ram alley, and Serjeants Inn; into Essex street, and into the Strand, through Palfgraves head court ; besides the two large Gates in the two Temple lanes.
Upon the Dissolution of the Priory of Whitefriars, the Church and Buildings in Process of Time became ruinous, and were pulled down ; afterwards converted into Buildings, and now contain several Lourts, Lanes, and Alleys; as Dogwell court, Essex court, Ashen tree court. Davis's yard, which is converted into a Glass house for making Flint glasses. Watermen's lane, as leading to the River Thames, where there is a Pair of Stairs to take Water at ; all Places of ordinary Account : besides the long turning Passage out of Fleet street into the lower End of Water lane, which runs by the Back side of the Temple Buildings, where there is a Gate into the Temple.
This Place was formerly, since its building into houses, inhabited by Gentry ; but some of the Inhabitants taking upon them to protect Persons from Arrests, upon a pretended Privilege belonging to the Place, the Gentry left it, and it became a Sanctuary to the Inhabitants, which they kept up by Force againd Law and Justice; so that it was diffidently crowded with such disabled and loose kind of Lodgers, and had the Nick name of Alsatia : But however, upon a great Concern of Debt, the Sheriff, with the Posse Comitatus, forced his Way in to make a Search, and yet to little Purpose ; for the Time of the Sheriff's coming not being concealed, and they having Notice thereof, took Flight, either to the Mint in Soutbwark, another such Place, or some other private Place, till the Disturbance was over, and then they returned.
In the latter End of King William the Third's Reign, the Parliament taking this great Abuse into Consideration, an Act was made to put down this, the Savoy, and many other pretended privileged Places. The Inhabitants of White friars maintain their own Poor, collect their taxes, and chuse their own Officers among themselves.
Water lane severeth Whitefriars from Salisbury lane court ; it is a good, broad, and strait Street, which comes out of Fleet street, and runs down to the Thames, where there is one of the City Lay stalls for the Soil of the Streets; winch is taken from
thence by Barges and Dung Boats, and made Use of by Gardeners and Farmers for the manuring their Grounds. This Lane is better built than inhabited, by reason of its being so pestered with Carts to the Lay stall and Wharfs, for Wood, Coals, &c. lying by the Water side, at the Bottom, of this Lane ; as also to Whitefriars, into which it has an open Passage ; as likewise another into Salisbury court. On the West Side of this Lane is Britons alley, as also Dove court ; both ordinary Places, with a Passage into the Friars.
Dorset court, commonly called Salisbury court, was a large House inhabited by the Earls of Dorset, which was many Years ago, pulled down and converted into buildings ; as was the Garden and Wilderness ; there being a handsome well built Street, which comes out of Fleet Street, called Dorset street, and runs Southward to the River Thames, where there are Stairs of Free stone for taking Water at.
Near to which Place once stood the Theatre, or Play House ; a neat Building, having a curious Front next the Thames, with an open Place for the Reception of Coaches : On the other Side is a large Wood yard Wharf belonging to the Company of Carpenters.
This Street, on the West Side passing down to the Thames, is a handsome, airy, open Square, all taken up with good Buildings, the best inhabited of any in the Court, for that Part towards the Thames, as also the Wilderness, with the small Courts, are not to be much boasted of. In this Place are these Courts and Places of Note, viz. Blue ball court, an indifferent good Place, with a Free stone Pavement. Half paved court, but ordinary. Dorset court, a small Place, handsomely built, and indifferently well inhabited ; in which is the Charity School for St. Bride's Parish, for fifty Boys and fifty Girls. Sugar loaf court, very small and ordinary. The Wilderness, so called, as being built in that Part ot the Garden where the Wilderness was. Fishers alley, also ordinary, has a Passage into Water lane. Near this Alley is George yard, but mean ; and Crown alley, inconsiderable, has a Passage into Tuder street, and so to the Ditch side.
This Dorset, or Salisbury court, claimed a peculiar Liberty to itfelf, and to be exempt from the City Government ; and the Inhabitants would not admit of the City Officers to make any Arrest there. How far these Privileges reach, is uncertain, but many resorted hither, who fled from their Creditors, till the Act was made to suppress pretended privileged Places. Out of Dorset court is a paved Free stone Passage into St. Bridget's, the Parish Church.
Bride lane comes out of Fleet street by St. Bridget's Church yard, which, with a turning Passage by bridewell and the Ditch side, falls down to Woodmongers Wharfs by the Thames. It took its Name from St. Bridget's Church, to which there is a Passage up Stone Steps.
King Tuder's, King Edward's, and Water streets are on the Back side of Bridewell, and have a Passage into Salisbury court through Crown alley ; all Places inhabited by private People, and none of the meanest Rank ; one Row, which fronts the Woodyard, and regards the Thames, consists of good Buildings. Greens rents falls into St. Brides lane, and is but mean, as is Beer alley.
The Ditch side, called Fleet ditch, is a spacious Place, with good Buildings on both Sides of the Canal, so made since the Fire of London, and has on both Sides a broad Passage for Carts to the Wharfs next the Thames ; this Canal is railed in, for fear of Danger of People's falling into it.
The Part of this Canal, on the South Side, next the Thames, has the East Side in the Ward of Faringdon within ; but all the rest, down to Holborn bridge, on both Sides, is in this Ward. The Well Side of the Part next to Holborn is the best inhabited, and much taken up by Upholsterers, Brasiers, and those that sell Second hand household Goods. The Fall Side of that Part from
Fleet bridge to the Thames has the best houses, and best inhabited. On the West Side, from Fleet bridge to Holborn bridge, are several small Alleys which lead up to Shoe lane. On the East Side is the Fleet Prison.
In ancient Times there was a Brook, called Turnmill brook, which ran under Holborn and Fleet bridges into the Thames.
On the East Side of Fleet ditch, from this Prison to Holborn bridge, are these Places : Fleet lane, which comes down from the Old Bailey, over against the Sessions house, and falls into the Ditch side, a Place of no great Account for Buildings or Inhabitants. In this Lane are several small Courts, as Cheshire rents, Well yard, Harrow court, and Cock alley ; all Places but of mean Account.
On the North Side is Seacoal lane. This Lane is very ordinary, both as to Houses and Inhabitants. Out of this Lane is a Passage to Snow hill, and another into Green arbour, and a third into Bishops court ; the two last ascended up by many Steps, or a Pair of Stairs, made thro' London wall. On the West Side of this Lane are these Alleys, which fall into the Ditch side, viz. George alley, or Yard ; Bear alley, on the South Side of which is another small Alley, called Little Bear alley, Goose alley, against which is a small Place called Ford's rents.
Newcastle street comes out of Seacoal lane, and falls into the Ditch side, an open Place, and pretty well built.
Turnagain lane hath a Passage out of Town ditch into Snow hill, a Place tolerably well built.
Crown court, very small ; and on the South Side is Queen' s head court, indifferently built.
The Old Bailey, of which there are two, the Great and the Little. The Great Old Bailey is an open Street, with good built Houses, and well inhabited by Tradesmen, and others. In this Place, was Justice Hall, commonly called the Sessions House, as well for the City and Liberty thereof, as for the County of Middlesex. And lower down, on the same East Side, is the new created
Theatre for the Surgeons.
The East Side of the Old Bailey runs down by the City Wall, upon the Ditch called Houndsditch, from Ludgate to Newgate. About the Middle of the great Street, on this Side, is Balls court, which is but small ; also Red Cross court, which is indifferent. On the West, of this Street, from the Corner of Ludgate hill to Fleet lane, are these Places, viz. Ship court, but small ; Prideaux court, large, with good houses on the West Side, having an Entrance into it fit for Coach or Cart ; Black and white court, a large open Place, with handsome Buildings, at the upper End of which is Chequer yard, out of which is a Passage into Fleet lane.
In the Little Old Bailey are these Places, viz. Deans court, long and narrow, with a Free stone Pavement, Browns court, long, narrow, and ordinary, Elliots court, well built and inhabited ; Bishops court, indifferently well inhabited, and hath a Passage down Steps into Seacoal lane ; Green arbour court, at the upper End is a very good Square, with tolerable good houses, and Inhabitants answerable. Out of this Court is also a Passage down Steps into Seacoal lane. And out of this Court is another Passage into Angel court, seated on Snow hill, against the Saracen's head Inn, being a very handsome Place, having at the upper End a very good large house, with a Garden before it ; once made use of for the Farthing Office, now for the Hand in Hand Assurance for houses. St. Dunstans court, seated betwixt Bishops court and Elliots court.
Now back to the West Part of Fleet street, on Chancery lane, a Street of a very great Resort, and well inhabited by Tradesmen in the Part next Fleet street, and in that Part next to Holborn (into which it falls) by Lawyers, and those depending on them : And the rather, for that in this Lane is Lincoln's Inn, Serjeants Inn, the Rolls, the Examiners Office within the Rolls yard, the Six Clerks Office, (to which belong twelve Masters in Chancery, and six Clerks) , Symond's Inn, where the Register's Office for the Court of Chancery is kept, the Cursitors Office, the Office for the Masters in Chancery, &c. All which Places are out of the City Liberty, except Serjeants Inn, which is an ancient Building. Opposite to this Inn is Crown court, a square Place, but the Building old. The City Liberty goes not much farther.
Next, on the North Side, is Fetter lane. For the Generality the houses here are good, and well inhabited. It runs Northwards from Fleet street into Holborn. Of this Lane, the Middle Part is the best. In this Lane are these Places :
Bond's stables, a large Yard, with some houses in it, besides the Inn ; the Part next Fetter lane is new built with handsome houses for Gentlemen, and is called the Rolls Buildings. Red hart Inn, new built, and very large and handsome. Over against the Rolls Buildings is Stone court, a small Place. Three leg alley, on the Back of East harding street, and falls into West harding street ; also hath a Passage into Fleet street through Red lion court. East harding street, indifferent good, falls
into Goldsmiths rents. Nevil's alley, very handsome, and well inhabited. Churchyard alley, very narrow, which after two Turnings falls into Cursitor's alley. Magpye yard, handsomely rebuilt, and hath a Passage into Castle street. Dean street, well built and inhabited, falls into Goldsmiths rents. Plough yard, an open Place, well inhabited ; over against which is a Dissenting Meeting house. Bewit's court, a very handsome and large new built Court, with a Free stone Pavement, and well inhabited. Not far from this Court is a Passage into Bartlets buildings in Holborn : This Passage hath a few neat and well built houses on the South Side, with pretty Gardens before them neatly kept. Horse shoe alley, small and ordinary.
Over against this Court is the White horse Inn, which is but small : Adjoining to which is the Back door of Barnard's Inn. Kings head court, formerly called White horse alley, a handsome new built Court, well inhabited, having a Free stone turning Passage into Holborn. Goldsmiths rents, a large Place, containing several Streets and Places of Name, and all well built and inhabited, especially East harding street, which is more open. This Street falls into West harding street, as also into Three leg alley, which is but ordinary.
In this Street are New court and Goldsmiths court, both but small. Dean street falls into Fetter lane out of East harding street, as aforesaid. New street, a handsome open Place, with indifferent good Buildings, of which there are four Streets, and all bearing that Name ; one falling into Shoe lane ; another, which turns Northwards, receives the other two, which comes out of East harding street. Gun powder alley, long and narrow, falls into Shoe lane, crossing Little New street, which is but ordinary.
The next Lane in Fleet street is Shoe lane, very long, runs North from Fleet street, over against Salisbury court, into Holborn, by St. Andrew's, Church; a Lane of no great Note either for Buildings or Inhabitants : In it are a great many Alleys and Courts, though of little Account. The first is Plumtree court, large and well built, it hath a Passage into another Court, so called, which falls into Holborn, that Part towards Shoe lane being broad. Well alley, very mean and ordinary. Molin's rents, indifferent good, but hath a narrow Passage into it. Isaacs rents, very ordinary. Near this is Spectacles rents, small and mean. Eagle and child alley, narrow, hath a Passage into Fleet ditch down Steps. Brewers yard, so called from a Brew house at the lower End : This hath a Passage into Fleet ditch. Queen's arms alley, but narrow, with a Free stone Pavement, which leads to the Ditch side, down Steps. George alley, but narrow, hath also a Passage down to the Ditch side. Rose and crcwn court, but indifferent, hath a Passage into George alley. Stonecutters street, good and open : This leads down to the Ditch side: Curriers alley, very ordinary, runs also to the Ditch side. Harp alley, but narrow, runs down to the Ditch side; a Place of great Trade for old Household Goods and Signs, but the Buildings are very mean. Angel court, small and ordinary. Fountain court, but ordinary.
Places on the West Side of this Lane : Robin hood court, broad and large, mean houses, and hath a Passage up Steps into Goldsmiths rents, Cockpit court, handsome, with Brick Buildings at the upper End, and hath a Free stone Pavement. Browns court, but small and mean. Falcon court, but ordinary, near the Corner of New street. King' s head court, a narrow, but well built and inhabited Place, which comes out o£ Wine office court, mentioned in Fleet street, and leads into this Lane. Globe court, but small.
Now more on the North is Holborn hill, a very broad and spacious Street, a Place of good Trade, and a great Thoroughfare. And for the Accommodation of Carriages, this Street, as also Snowhill, hath several considerable Inns. The Part of this Street in this Ward begins at the Bars, near Gray's Inn lane, and runs down to Holborn bridge, where Snow hill begins, and so with a turning Passage to St. Sepulchre's Church, and thence to Newgate.
Castle street, or Castle yard, as it is commonly called, is a good handsome Place, well built and inhabited, which has these Inlets and Outlets, viz. It comes out of Holborn, and leads into Cursitors alley, with an open Passage. On the East Side it
has a Passage into Fetter lane through Magpye yard. And on the West Side Tuckers, or Duck court, a large and well built Place, much inhabited by Lawyers, as seated Amongst the Inns of Court and Chancery, and this has an open Passage into Cursitors alley; besides, here is a narrow Passage on the South East Corner through Church yard alley into Fetter lane.
Cursitors alley leads into Chancery lane, over against Lincoln's Inn ; and this Place took its Name from the Cursitors Office, adjoining there to : It is a Place well built and inhabited, and stands well for Lodging, for those that come up to the Terms. The West End of this Alley, from or near the Rose Tavern to Chancery lane, is in the Rolls Liberty. Betwixt this Street and
Bernard' s Inn is White's alley, an indifferent Place, with old Timber houses. Barnards Inn ; the Buildings oi this Inn are very old, and much want rebuilding ; the Back court has a Passage into Fetter lane. King's head court, already spoken of.
Bartlets buildings, a very handsome spacious place graced with goodd Buildings of Brick, with Gardens behind the houses, and is a Place well inhabited by Gentlemen. Out of this Court, through a long Alley, wherein are some very good houses, is a Passage into Fetter lane. Adjoining to Bartlets buildings is a Court so called, which is but small. Thavies lnn, another of the Inns of Chancery, which is but small, and chiefly taken up by the Welsh Attorneys. St. Andrew's court, indifferent, and the houses old.
St. Andrews Church, seated in a very spacious Church yard, inclosed with a Wall.
Now to go back to Holborn hill, North Side, beginning at the Bars, in which Side there are some Parts out of the Freedom, as Brook street, Furnival's Inn, Hatton gardcn, Ely house, &c.
The Places of Note are, Warton court, very long, with a Passage into Brook street, the Court is new built with good Brick houses, has a Free stone Pavement, and well inhabited. Furnival's lnn, another of the Inns of Chancery.
Ely court, very handsome and large, with new Brick houses, and a Free stone Pavement, and well inhabited. Out of this Court is a Passage into Field lane. Dyer's court, Opposite to Shoe lane, indifferent good. Sutton court, over against St. Andrew's Church, large and good. Plough yard, ordinary, has a Passage into Field lane. Field lane, very narrow, but mean houses, and the Place nastily kept, being inhabited by Tripe dressers, on the East Side, by reason of the Benefit of the Ditch that runs on the Back side of their Yards and Slaughter houses to carry away their Filth. This Lane runs up to Saffron hill and receives Chick lane: But the Part of this Lane in the Freedom goes but little beyond the Passage into Plough yard.
Holborn bridge and Snow hill: This Part of Holborn goes to Lamb's conduit, and there begins Snow hill, which, in a winding Passage, runs up to St. Sepulchres Church; and both these Places are graced with good Buildings, well inhabited by Tradesmen, and are Places of great Resort.
The South Side, by the Bridge, lies open to the Canal already treated of. Here are these Places:
Horn alley, near the Bridge, but indifferent. Beehive alley, long, narrow, and ordinary. Catharine wheel alley, indifferent good. Kings arms inn, very considerable and large, having at the upper End of the Yard a Passage into Chick lane. Betwixt this Inn and Swan inn is Hand and crown alley, very small. George inn, very large: The Passage to the Yard is through Cow lane, and the Entrance to it in Holborn is through a paved Court, with indifferent good houses on both Sides. Bell alley, but ordinary. Cock court, seated almost against the Obelisk for Lamps, where the Conduit once stood, by the Corner of Cow lane, indifferent good, and has a Passage into Bell alley.
St. Sepulchres Church, or St. Sepulchres in the Bailey, seated on the Top of Snow hill.
Church lane, adjoining to this Church Eastward, which leads into Pye corner, noted chiefly for Cooks Shops, and Pigs dressed there formerly, during Bartholomew Fair.
Nag's head court, long and ordinary ; and opposite to this is Green dragon court, which is but small.
Giltspur street. In this Street are these Places :
Ball court, long, but ordinary. Horseshoe alley, long, narrow, and but indifferent. Rosemary lane, large, but ordinary, and has a Passage into the Long Walk, betwixt the two Hospitals. Church alley, so called as fronting St. Sepulchre's Church, and has a good Row of Buildings on the East Side, the West Side lying open, and only severed from the Church yard by a Wall.
Cock lane, an ordinary Place ; it comes out of Snow hill, and falls into Pye corner.
Cow lane, a great Thoroughfare for Carts, &c. out of Snow hill into Smithfield. In this Lane are several Coach makers, and a Passage to Hosier lane, which falls into Smithfield; and here are these Places :
Foxe's court, but ordinary, with a Passage into George inn. White lion court, but small, Green dragon court, a large and open Place, but ordinarily built. Bull head court, very mean. St. John's court, a large Place, indifferently inhabited, with old Buildings, and has a Passage into Chick lane. Pheasant court, near Smithfield Sheep pens on the South Side, which is but ordinary : And on the other Side is Red Cross court, but small.
Hosier lane comes out of Cow lane, and runs into Smithfield: A Place not over well built or inhabited, having chiefly Timber Houses. This Place is of great Resort during the Time of Bartholomew Fair. In this Lane is Bell alley, as also Three diamond court, both small and ordinary Places.
Chick lane, an ordinary Place, both for Buildings and Inhabitants. It comes out of Smithfield by the Sheep pens, and runs down to Field lane. In this Lane are several Courts and Alleys, as, NewCastle street or Durham yard, open to receive Carts and Coaches, having at the lower End a Yard for Stabling, and at the upper End is a Passage into Catharine wheel yard, which is none of the best. Blue boar court, which is ordinary, and ascended up by Steps. Church yard alley, narrow and ordinary : At the upper End is a Church yard, which belongs to St. Sepulchre's Parish.
Hides rents, a small open Court, very ordinary. Over against this Place is Cross keys court, also small and mean. St. Martins court, an open Place, but ordinarily inhabited. White horse alley, narrow and ordinary. Out of this is a Passage into Sharps alley, which leads to Cow Cross. Sun alley, over against St. John's court, very small. Thatch' d alley, narrow, small, and mean. Sharp' s alley, but indifferent, having turning Passages, and falls into the lower End of Cow Cross, as aforesaid. Opposite to this Place is Old Brewers yard, but in different, and has a Passage into Holborn through the Kings arms inn.
Smithfield pens, so called from the Sheep pens placed in that Part for the Sale of Sheep every Market day in Smithfield. The North, West, and South Sides having Rows of Buildings, most inhabited by Innholders, and such as keep Publick houses, of which the North Side is the best, and has these two Inns of good Trade, viz. the Rose and the Ram. Near the Ram is Adam and Eve alley, which is but ordinary, and has a Passage to Smithfield bars through the Boars head Tavern.
Smithfield bars, so called from the Bars there set up, for the severing of the City Liberty from that of the County. This Place was generally inhabited by Butchers, who were great Dealers, as well by Retail as Wholesale, for Sheep and Lambs, to other Butchers. In this Place is Nag's head alley, both small and ordinary.
Long lane may properly be so called for its Length, coming out of Aldersgate street, against Barbican, and running into Smithfield. The Lane, or rather Street, is good, the houses good, for Timber Buildings, and was once very well inhabited by Shopkeepers, who dealt in Apparel, Linen, and Upholders Goods, both new and old, and for this Trade it was of very, good Account.
This Lane goes in this Ward from Smithfield to the Red lion inn, the other Part being in Aldersgate Ward, but something further on the South Side, even to Golden dragon court . The Places in this Lane are, Three fox court, but ordinary. Charter house street, a neat new built Place, with an open Passage into the Charter house yard, with neat and genteel houses, well inhabited: This Place, before its new Building, was called Carpenters yard. Three horseshoe court, but ordinary. Cat alley has a narrow Entrance, but good ; and on the Back side of this is another Court so called.
Red lion inn has a large Yard for Stabling and Coaches, and has a Passage into Charter house yard, and another into Goswell street. Golden dragon yard, also for Stabling.
Great St. Bartholomew' s close : This close is open and large, with several good houses, which generally are all well inhabited. Out of this close are several Passages into Duck lane, Little Britain, and two into Aldersgate street, of which one is thro' Northumberland alley, and the other thro' Half moon alley, another Passage into Cloth fair, and another into Long lane.
Places of Note in this close, and near it, are, Westmoreland court, a square Place, formerly a large house, now converted into Tenements. Out of this Court is Westmoreland alley, by some called Paved alley, as paved with Free stone, and leads into Aldersgate street. Half moon alley, very narrow. Middlesex house, an old large Building, now severed into Dwelling houses, with a Court yard before it, inclosed within a Wall. Over against this Place is Parkers yard, indifferent good. Passing Northwards is a Gate way, the Bounds of this close, where beyond there are some Streets and Buildings, as, New street and Middle
street, both indifferent; and Back alley, which is but ordinary ; all three falling into another Street, which has a Passage into Long lane.
Cloth fair comes out of Smithfield, a Place generally inhabited by Woollen drapers and Mercers, and is of some Note.
Duck lane comes out of Little Britain, and falls Duck lane into Smithfield, a Place once noted for Dealers in old Books, but at present quite forsaken by all Sorts of Dealers. Well close, a very handsome, open Court, with good houses, which are well inhabited ; it has another Passage into King street by St. Bartholomew's Hospital. This Street is short, and goes from the said Hospital into the Long walk, and so to Christs Hospital.
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, commonly called the Lame Hospital, because lame, wounded, and diseased People are hither sent for Cure.
From King street, through this Hospital, is a Passage into Smithfield, and adjoining to this is the Parish Church of Little St. Bartholomew.
There are to watch at the Gates and several Stands, every Night, in this Ward, three Constables, the Beadle, and an hundred and thirty Watchmen, and in the Precinct of White friars eight ; in all one hundred and thirty eight.
The Jurymen returned by the Inquest in this Ward are to serve in the several Courts held at Guildhall for the Month of June, yearly.
This Ward has an Alderman and three Deputies, sixteen Common Councilmen, fifteen Constables, fifteen Scavengers, and forty four Inquestmen.
It is taxed to the Fifteenth in London at thirty five Pounds, and in the Exchequer at thirty four Pounds ten Shillings.
The Alderman of this Ward is Richard Beckford, Esq; one of the Representatives in Parliament for the City of Bristol; the Common Councilmen are, Mr. Chr. Horsenail, Deputy, Mr. Robert Gamon, Mr. Samuel Beard, Mr. John Hughes, Mr. William Savage, Mr. John King, Mr. Thomas Nowell, Mr. William Hutton, Mr. John Coles, Deputy, Mr. Francis Fletcher, Mr. Samuel Wolley, Mr. Charles Gardner, Mr. William Cogan, Mr. John Burnett, Mr. Richard Nutt, and Mr. Stephen Preacher.
This Ward is so extensive, that it has been thought proper, for its better Government, to part it into three Divisions ; as, St. Dunstans, St. Bridget's, and St. Sepulchre's.
The most remarkable Things which at present are to be found in this large Ward are,
First, The Parishes and Parish Cburches (1.) of St. Bartholomew the Less ; (2.) of St. Bartholomew the Great; (3.) St. Sepulchre's; (4.) St. Andrew's Holborn; (5.) St. Dunstan in the West; and (6.) St. Bridget, alias St. Bride; of which in our Parochial History.
Secondly, The Temple, or, as it is recorded in History, the New Temple ; so called, because the Templers, before building of this house, had their Temple in Oldbourn. This house was founded by the Knights Templers in England, in the Reign of Henry II. and the same was dedicated to God and our Blessed Lady by Heraclius, Patriarch of the Church called the Holy Resurrection in Jerusalem, in the Year of Christ 1185.
It contained all that space of Ground from White friars Eastward, to Essex house without Temple bar, and a Part of that too, as appears by the first Grant thereof to Sir William Paget, Knt. Secretary of State to King Henry VIII. Pat. 2. Edward VI.
These Knights Tempters took their Beginning about the Year 1118.
Thirdly, In Chancery lane is a Place for keeping the Records of Chancery, called The Rolls, or Chapel for the Custody of Rolls or Retards in Chancery. This Chapel was anciently the house of the converted Jews, founded by King Henry III. in Place of a Jew's house to him forfeited in the Year 1233, and the seventeenth of his Reign ; who built there for them a fair Church. It stood not far from the Old Temple, but in the Mid way between the Old Temple and the New. In which house all such Jews and Infidels as were converted to the Christian Faith were ordained and appointed (under an honest Rule of Life) sufficient Maintenance. Whereby it came to pass, that in a short Time there were gathered a great Number of Converts, which were baptized, instructed in the Doctrine of Christ, and there lived under a learned Christian appointed to govern them.
Fourthly, besides these ancient Foundations, there are several more houses for the Law, commonly called Inns of Court : As, Barnard's (l) Barnard's Inn, situate on the South Side of Inn. Holborn, near to the North West End of Fetter lane, was anciently called Mackworth's Inn, which is an Inn of Chancery, belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, as says the Record of Henry VI. the twenty third of his Reign; and was founded by Inquisition in the Guildhall of London, before J. Norman, Mayor, the King's Escheator.
(2.) Near to the West End of St. Andrew's Church, in Holbcm, is another Inn in Chancery, called from its Founder Thavie 's Inn. It is a Member of Lincoln' s Inn, who had a Grantthereof from Gregory Nichols, Citizen and Mercer of London, in the Year 1549 ; by virtue whereof, they soon after demised the same to the Principal and ancients thereof, for a certain Term of Years, at the Rent of three Pounds six Shillings and eight Pence per Annum.
This Inn appears to be of great Antiquity, by its having belonged to John Thavie, (from whom it is denominated) in the Reign of Edward III. by whose Will it appears to have been then an Inn for Students of the Law ; some of whom, about the Year 1347, had the New Temple demised to them by the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem, for a yearly Rent of ten Pounds ; and removing thither, they and their Successors have continued there ever since.
The said Thavie, Anno 1348, left an Estate so considerable for the Support of St. Andrew's Church in Holborn, that it is said the present Church is built thereby about the Year 1670. This house is governed by a Principal and eleven ancients, who, with the other Members. are to be ten Days in Commons in issuable Terms, and in each of the rest a Week.
(3) Adjoining to the North Side of St. Dunstans Church, in Fleet street, stands Cliffords Inn, also an Inn in Chancery, and Member of the Inner Temple. It did some Time belong to Robert Clifford, by Gift of Edward II.
(4) Adjoining to the Precinct of White friars, and a little East of the Temple, is a Place called Serjeants Inn, for that divers Judges and Servants at Law kept a Commons, and were lodged there in Term Times.
This Serjeants Inn seems to have been some Time a Garden belonging to the New Temple, and granted by King Henry III. to a Bishop of Chichester, for such a Patent is found,
Fifthly, On the West Side of Chancery lane was Six some Time an house belonging to the Prior of Nelson Park, a house of Canons in Lincolnshire. This was commonly called Hereflete Inn, and was a Brewhouse, but now built for the Six Clerks of the Chancery, and stands over against the said house, called the Rolls and near unto the Lane which entered Picket's Cross, or Fickets field, now Carey fields.
There was an Act: made for Assurance of a Tenement to the Six Clerks of the Chancery, called Hereflete Inn, in Chancery lane, and for making them a Corporation.
Sixthly, Ely house, the City Mansion of the Bishops of Ely, on the North Side of Holborn hill. Will de Luda, Bilhop of Ely, deceased 1297, and gave this house, by the Name of his Manor, with the Appurtenances, in Holborn, to his Successors ; with Condition, that his next Successor should pay 1000 Marks towards the finding of three Chaplains in the Chapel there.
More, John Hotham, Bishop of Ely, did give by the Name of six Messuages, two Cellars, and forty Acres ©f Land, in the Suburbs of London, in the Parish of St. Andrew in Holborn, to the Prior and Convent of Ely, as appears by Patent of the 9th of Edward III. This Man was Bishop of Ely twenty Years, and deceased An. 1336.
Seventhly, This Ward is also remarkable for two great Hospitals, viz. Bridewell (Bridewell, situate on the North Bank of
the River Thames, near the East Extremity of Fleet street, was in old Time a Royal Palace, for the Kings of this Realm have been there lodged, and their Courts of Law have been there kept, of old Time. And, 'till the 9th of Henry III. the Courts were kept in the King's house, where soever he lodged, as may appear by ancient Records.
King Henry VIII. built there a stately and beautiful house, new, for the Reception of the Emperor Charles V. who, in the Year 1522, was lodged himself at Black friars; but his Nobles in this new built Bridewell, a Gallery being made over the Water, and through the Wall of the City, into the Emperor's Lodging at Black friars. King Henry himself ofcentimes lodged there also, as namely, in the Year 1525, a Parliament being then held in Black friars.
In the Year 1529, the same King Henry and Queen Katharine were lodged there, whilst the Question of their Marriage was argued in Black friars, &c.
There being many poor distressed Persons in the City, who had neither house nor Harbour, but were forced to lie abroad in the open Streets, many worthy Citizens were thereby much affected, and especially Ridley, the good Bishop of London; who, considering that Bridewell, an old decayed house of the King's, situated in the City, being very large and capacious, might be extremely serviceable to this charitable Purpose, he endeavoured to find a way to beg it of the King, and had the better Opportunity at this Time, one being about buying it of the King to convert to his own Use. And to compass this Defign, in the Month of May, in this charitable Year 1552, he wrote a very pathetick Letter to Sir William Cecyl, Knt. the King's Secretary, whom he knew to be of a pious Disposition, and much about the
Afterward this house being obtained to the City, it was employed for the Correction and Punishment of idle, vagrant People, and Strumpets, and for setting them to work, that they might in an honest Way take Pains to get their own Livelihood,
In June an Indenture bore Date and was made between the King, and the Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London, and their Successors for ever, towards the Maintenance of poor and impotent People, granting all the Manor house, and Place of Bridewell, with the Appurtenances, lying and being in the Parish of St. Bridget in Fleet street, with other Lands, and with a Licence to purchase four thousand Mark Lands for the Use aforesaid, besides the Lands given them by his Majesty in London, and elsewhere, and to purchase so much Land, besides Fees and Pensions granted to the Officers; and that the Lands given them by the King should be quit and discharged of all Tenths and first Fruits : That they might make godly and wholesome Ordinances, Statutes, and Rules, for the Government of the Poor : And that within the City of London, and County of Middlesex, they might search and examine all Manner of suspicious houses, Taverns, Ale houses, &c. and other suspected Places for Ruffians, Vagabonds, and
idle Persons. This Gift of the King was computed to the yearly Value of four hundred and fifty Pounds.
And moreover, out of his meer Grace and Christian Charity, he gave out of the Hospital of the Savoy, now suppressed for the aforesaid charitable Use, a great Part of the Revenue thereof, which was (even hundred Mark Lands, together with the Bedding and Furniture; though, dying soon after, the Grant seemed not to be fully
finished : But, for Fear it mould not take Place, (so much it ran in the King's Mind) that in his last Will he caused this Clause to be inserted :
The Grant made to the Mayor and City of London, touching the Savoy and Lands thereof, to be performed.
Though this house was granted in the Year 1553, yet it seems it was not till two Years after that the City entered and took Possession of it by Gerard their Mayor, having obtained Queen Mary's Confirmation.
Concerning the forwarding of this good Work of Bridewell, and bringing it to a defired Perfection, this Act of Common Council was made the last of February, in the second and third Years of Philip and Mary:
" Forasmuch as King Edward VI. had given his house of Bridewell unto the City, partly for the setting of idle and lewd People to work, and partly for the lodging and harbouring of the poor, sick, weak, and sore People of this City, and of poor wayfaring People repairing to the same ; and had, for this last Purpose, given the Bedding and Furniture of the Savoy : Therefore, in Consideration that very great Charges would be required to the fitting of the said house, and the buying of Tools and Bedding, the Money was ordered to be gotten up among the rich People of the Companies of London, &c."
In the Time of Queen Elizabeth, about the Year 1570 and odd, one John Pain, a Citizen, invented a Mill to grind Corn, which he got recommended to the Lord Mayor, for the Use of Bridewell. This Mill had two Conveniences; one was, that it would grind a greater Quantity confidently than other Mills of that Sort could do; and the other (which would render it so usefui to Bridewell) was, that the Lame, either in Arms or Legs, might work at it, if they had but Use of either; and accordingly these Mills were termed Hand Mill or Feet Mills.
This Mill he shewed to the Lord Mayor, who saw it grind as much Corn with the Labour of two Men,, as they did then at Bridewell with ten; that is to say, two Men with Hands, two Bushels the Hour; or two Men with Feet, two Bushels the Hour: If they were lame in their Arms, then they might earn their Livings with their Legs; if lame in their Legs, then they might earn their Livings with their Arms.
One Mill would grind twenty Bushels of Wheat in a Day; lo that by Computation it was reckoned, that one of these would supply a thousand Persons.
In Bridewell, at the City's Charge, were built in those Times twelve new Granaries, sufficient to contain six thousand Quarters of Corn, and two Storehouses, which would hold four thousand Chaldron of Coals, for the Provision or the City, at the Charge of three thousand Pounds, or there abouts.
The Use of this Hospital now is for a house Use of Correction, and to be a Place where ail Strumpets, Night walkers, Pick pockets, vagrant and idle Persons, that are taken up for their ill Lives, as also incorrigible and disobedient Servants, are
committed by the Mayor and Aldermen, who are Justices of the Peace in this City ; and being so committed, are forced to beat Hemp in pubiick View, with due Correction of Whipping, according to their Offence, for such a Time as the president and Court shall see Cause : The Court Day being generally every Friday in the Fore noon.
And to this Hospital are sent several Youths as Apprentices to Glovers, Flax dressers, Weavers, &c. who there reside ; and these are clad in blue Doublets and Breeches, with white Flats.
Having faithfully served their Time of seven Years, they have not only their Freedom, but also ten Pounds each, towards carrying on their respective Trades, and many of them have, from nothing, arrived to be Governors themselves.
In the Year 1666 this house was burnt, and all the Apartments belonging to it; as also all the Dwelling houses in the Precinct: of Bridewell, which were about two Thirds of the Revenue of the house : But the Governors, till the Hospital could be rebuilt, made Provision for the several Arts Matters and their Apprentices, in Places remote from the City. And now the Chapel, Court house, Work houses, and Dwelling houses, within the said Hospital, by the Care and Pains of the worthy Governors at the Time of building them, are more convenient than ever.
The Reparations, Rebuilding, and other incident Charges, occaaioned by the Fire, amounted to above six thousand Pounds, besides the great Loss that this house sustained by the Fire in 1666, their Revenue was much impaired by two other Fires that happened at Wapping, where a great many Tenements belonging to it were burnt; the one in June 1673, and the other in November 1682.
Its Chapel. There is a Chapel belonging to Bridewell Precinct, which was enlarged and beautified at the proper Cost and Charge of the Governors and Inhabitants of this PrecincT, in the Year of our Lord 1620; Sir Thomas Middleton being then President, and Mr. Thomas Johnson Treasurer of this Hospital.
The Enlargement was by taking in of a large Room, that, before the Date above named, joined upon the Head of the Chapel : This Ground adding to the Length of it (at the full Breadth going with it) twenty four Feet, and better.
This Room thus taken in, trimmed, beautified, and consecrated, was made a handsome Chapel, it being before a Room empty, waste, rude, and unsightly, though then in the Use deserving a fair Commendation ; for then the Ground that is now a Chancel to the Prisoners of the House, was a Chapel, into which, every Sabbath, thro' a bye or backward Passage, they were brought from their several Lodgings to hear divine Service and Sermons.
(2.) The Hospital of St. Bartholomew, situate on the South East Side of Smithfeld, which is incorporated by the Name of the Hospital of the Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of London, Governors for the Poor, called Little St. Bartholomew's, near West Smithfeld. It was erected, for sick and maimed People, where great Care is taken of them, and all Necessaries for Food, Lodging, Attendance, Physick, and Medicaments, proper for their Cure, administered ; for they have good able Physicians and Surgeons provided, belonging to the Hospital, who give their constant Attendance as Occasion requires, and they have Matrons and Nurses to look to them, and to see that they have what is convenient.
There belongs also to the Hospital an Apothecary, to provide and prepare what the Physicians direct: And the Diseased are duly visited by them in their Wards where they are lodged every Morning and Evening, as there is Need ; everyone having a Bed to himself; and, by the Care of the Matron, the Wards are always kept dean and neat.
It formerly belonged to the Priory of St. Bartholomew in Smithfeld, founded by one Rakere, the King's Minstrel, a witty Gentleman, belonging to King Henry I. about the Year 1102 ; and he was himself the first Prior.
It was governed by a Master and eight Brethren, and four Sisters, to take Care of the Poor of the said Hospital.
Both Priory and Hospital were dissolved under King Henry VIII. who, in the last Year of his Reign, founded the Hospital anew, for the Relief of an hundred Poor and Sick of the City of London, endowing it with the yearly Revenue of five hundred Marks, conditionally, that the City also, for their Part, should add other five hundred Marks oy the Year; which Thing, with all due Thankfulness, they received at his Majesty's Hands, and embraced the Condition : But, when the City took a Survey of what was given by the King for this yearly Sum, they found the Raising of this five hundred Marks Rent to lie only in certain houses, some in great Decay, and some rotten and ruinous, and some, to whom better Tenants had happened, already leased out at Terms and Rent, scarce reasonable for the Behoof of the Poor ; so that to make them again worth the wonted Revenue, and then to continue
in the same, was no small Charge. Pensions also were lifting out of the five hundred Marks, and granted by Letters Patents of that King to the Hospitaler there, and to other Ministers of the same.
In this Hospital itself was found only so much Furniture towards the succouring of these hundred Poor, as served three or four Harlots then lying in Childbed, and no more ; so much had the godly Meaning of that King been abused in those Days. The Citizens, nevertheless, were not discouraged with the evil Doings of others, and the great Fall of their Hopes, but provided with what Speed they could to the Redress of the Decays, Disorders, and Defaults, and bestowed thereabout not much less than a thousand Pounds whereby, in King Edward's Time, it came to such a Point that it was fit to receive the Number, and to succour them with all Necessaries requisite, and accordingly received them and maintained them : But, within five Years after the Citizens had the Care of this Hospital, they were, and even in Pulpits, exclaimed against, as if they had wronged this Charity, by this mistaken Supposition, that this Hospital should have made a general Sweep of all Poor and Afflicted; and so for
their Care were rewarded with nothing but open Detraction.
In this Season, notwithstanding, were healed of the Pox, Fistulas, filthy Blains, and Sores, to the Number of eight hundred, and thence safe delivered, that others having Need might enter in their Rooms ; besides eight score and twelve that died there in their intolerable Miseries, which might have died and stunk in the Noses of the City.
Upon this Slander, so widely spread, it was thought good by the Lord Mayor, as chief Patron and Governor of this Hospital, in the Name of the City, to publish at that Time who were the Overseers, and with the Orders by him appointed, and from Time to Time practised and used, by twelve of the Citizens most ancient in their Courses, for the Redress and Stay of such Slanders, and that it might be an open Witness unto all Men how well Things were administered there, and by whom, and likewise to excite all
well disposed Persons more and more to bellow their Charity here.
And because these Men, that thus spoke against the Management of this Hospital, endeavoured to stop any further Charities and Gifts towards it, suggesting that there was enough already for this hundred of diseased People to be looked after, it was declared that the City, of their endless Good will towards this most necessary Succour of their poor Brethren in Christ, altho' at the first they seemed bound to the precise Number of an hundred and no more, wished all Men to be most assuredly persuaded, that, if by any Means possible they might, they defired to enlarge the Benefit to a thousand.
At the first Erection, the Hospital was taken Care of by two Ranks of Persons, viz. Governors and Officers, which latter were hired for Wages, to have the necessary Doings in 'the Service of the house.
This Hospital being the most ancient Hospital in the City of London, and the Suburbs thereof, and having escaped the great Fire in the Year 1666; the Buildings whereof were by Length of Time become so ruinous and dangerous, that in the Year 1729 there appeared to be an absolute Necessity to rebuild the same. And a Subscription was then entered into by many of the worthy Governors, and other charitable Persons, for defraying the Expense thereof, upon a Plan then prepared, containing four detached Piles of Building, to be joined by Stone Gateways about a Court or Area : Three Piles whereof have been erected and finished by the Money arising from the Subscriptions, and the Benefactions of the Governors, and other charitable Persons, given for that
One of the said Piles doth contain a large Hall for the Resort of the Governors at general Courts ; a Compting house for the Meeting of the Committees of Governors for the Dispatch of the Business of the Hospital ; several Rooms for examining, admitting, prescribing for and discharging the Patients, and other necessary Offices. The other two Piles do contain Wards for the Reception of the Patients and their Nurses only ; so that the Hospital, being so considerably enlarged, doth now entertain four hundred and twenty Patients within the same, besides sixty six Patients in the Lock and Kingsland Hospitals, and a great Number of Out Patients.
But as the constant annual Charge of maintaining and relieving the great Number of Poor, now under the Care of this Hospital, much exceeds the Revenue thereof, which is likewise greatly lessened by the Fall of the Rents of the houses belonging to the Hospital ; the charitable Assistance of all Persons is therefore humbly desired to enable the Governors, not only to support the present Charity but also to accomplish the further Enlargement thereof, there not being yet sufficient Room to admit all the Poor who daily apply for Relief: A Charity so necessary for preserving the Lives of many miserable Persons, who might otherwise perish, were it not for that Relief, which, by the Blessing of God, they daily receive from this Hospital, in 1755.
Eighthly, Here are two Markets, one of which for Spaciousness and the Business transacted therein, and the other for its Neatness and Regularity, not to be equalled in any other Part of the Kingdom.
(1.) The former is that large Square of Smithfield, i. e. a plain or smooth Field, which, tho' Uld it is much reduced in its Compass by the Buildings on the North and West Sides, is and was a most capacious Market for black Cattle, Sheep, Horses, Hay and Straw, even 500 Years ago. The ancient State of this Field may be collected from the various Uses it served in those Times, and is as follows :
The rest of Smithfield, from Long lane End to the Bars, is inclosed with Inns and large Tenements. On the West Side is Chicken lane, down to Cowbridge. Then are the Pens or Folds, so called of Sheep there parted, and penned up, to be sold on the Market Days.
Then was Smithfield pond, which of old Time, in Records, was called Horse pool ; for that Men watered horses there, and was a great Water. In the sixth of Henry V. a new Building was made in the West Part of Smithfield, betwixt the said Pool and the River of the Wells, or Turnmill brook, in a Place then called The Elms ; For that there grew many Elm Trees, and had been the Place of Execution for Offenders. Since which Time the Building there had been so increased, that, saith Stow in his Time, now not one Tree remaineth growing.
This Place was in Use for Executions in the Year 1219, and, as it seems, long before ; by a Clause Roll 4 Henry III.
In Cowbridge street; or Cow lane, was the Inn or London Lodging of the Prior of Sempringham.
The rest of that West Side of Smithfield hath several large Inns, and other good Buildings up to Hosier lane, which turns down towards Holborn till it meets with Cow lane.
Stow saith, by these Incroachments, and this Inclosure of Smithfield, there remained but a small Portion for the old Uses, viz. for Markets of horses and Cattle, nor for military Exercises, as Joustings, Tournings and great Triumphs, which had been there performed before the Princes and Nobility, both of this Realm and foreign Countries.
King Henry II. granted to the Priory of St. Bartholomew the Privilege of a Fair to be kept yearly at Bartholomew tide for three Days, viz. the Eve, the Day, and the Morrow ; to which the Clothiers of England and Drapers of London repaired, and had their Booths and Standings within the Church yard of this Priory, closed in with Walls and Gates, locked every Night, and watched, for the Safety of Men's Goods and Wares. A Court of Piepowders was daily, during the Fair, holden for Debts and Contracts.
(2) The other is Fleet Market, situate on the Place where of late was the new Canal, between holborn bridge, and the Bridge commonly called Fleet bridge, at the Bottom ot Ludgate hill. It is adapted to the Sale of Butchers Meat by Retail, Poultry, Fish, Herbs, Fruits, Butter, Cheese, Eggs, &c. The Stalls range in two Rows of an equal Height, with a handsome Walk between, the whole Length from North to South, and secured from the Weather. In the Centre is a neat Lanthorn with a Clock.
The whole is paved with Rag Stones ; and the Fruiterers Stands are made in the Form of Piazzas, with proper Conveniences to deposite their remaining Stock.
Ninthly, A little to the South West of Newgate, on the East Side of the Street called the Old bailey, stands the Court house for the Trial of Malefactors, for Crimes committed in the Cities of London and Westminster, and County of Middlesex. It is a Foundation of great Antiquity, as supposed to be a Corruption of Bail hill i. e. the Place of Trial for Prisoners; as now we retain the Name of the Bail dock for a certain Part of this Court , in which the Malefactors are confined till called up to Trial, &c. The present Building is capacious. The Court room is a very large Square. There are many Apartments for the Entertainment and Conveniency of the Magistrates, &c. that attend the Court.
Before it is a large Court yard, and behind it a Garden plat, and yet it has been known to be so offensive, by the Smell of the miserable Gaol birds brought thither to be tried, and the Heat of the Breaths of the great Number or Spectators crowding on certain remarkable Trials in sultry Weather, that at one Time, a few Years ago, upwards of two hundred People caught such a Fever there, that they died in a few Days of a Disease that baffled the whole Art of Physick ; Amongst whom was a Judge, an Alderman, several of the Jury, &c.
On the East Side of Fleet Market, and a little Fleet to the South of Fleet lane, stands the Fleet Prison house, so called of the Fleet, or Water, running by it, and some Time flowing about it, but now vaulted over.
In the Year 1729, great Complaints having been made of Abuses committed in this and other Prisons, a Committee of the house of Commons was appointed to make an Enquiry into the State of the Gaols ; by whom such Enormities were discovered, that the Warden of the Fleet, John Huggins, Esq; and his Deputy, Thomas Bambridge, were turned out of their Offices, and committed to Newgate ; and the former tried for the Murder of one of his Prisoners, by locking him in a Dungeon, without any Provision, either of Food or Raiment, where he perished in a deplorable Manner ; but the Jury, upon the Trial, bringing in a special Verdict, he was afterwards acquitted. However, this occasioned an Act of Parliament for the better Regulation of Gaols for the future.
Near to the South Extremity of the Old bailey, on the East Side is lately erected by the Company of Surgeons a Hall or Theatre for transacting of Business, Dissections of human Bodies, and reading of Lectures in Anatomy. It is a very hand some Edifice of Brick and Stone ; containing all Conveniencies for such'an useful and learned Body, and completed, as we are informed, by private Subscriptions among the free Surgeons of London.
The South West Extremity of this Ward at the End of Fleet street terminates with a very handsome Gate, called Temple bar, where in ancient Times were only Posts, Rails and a Chain, such as now are at Holborn, Smithfield, and Whitechapel bars. Afterwards there was a house of Timber erected Cross the Street, with a narrow Gateway, and an Entry on the South Side of it under the house. But, since the great Fire there is erected a stately Gate, with two posterns, one on each Side, for the Convenience of Foot Passengers, with strong Gates to shut up in the Nights, and always good Store of Watchmen, the better to prevent Danger.
This Gate is built all of Portland Stone, of Rustick Work below, and of the Corinthian Order. Over the Gate way, on the East Side, fronting the City of London, in two Niches are the Effigies, in Stone, of Queen Elizabeth, and King James I. very curiously carved, and the Kings Arms over the Key Stone of the Gate, the Supporters being at a Distance over the Rustick Work.
And on the West Side, fronting the City of Westminfter, in two Niches, are the like Figures of King Charles I. and King Charles II. in Roman Habits. Through this Gate are two Passages for Foot Passengers : One on the South, over which is engraven, Erected, Sir Samuel Starling being Mayor. And another on the North, over which is engraven, Continued, Sir Richard Ford, Mayor. Finished, Sir George Waterman, Mayor.
The State, since the Erection of this Gate, has particularly distinguished it, by ordering the Heads of such as are executed for Rebellion or High Treason to be fixed on the Top thereof.
Between Hosier and Cow lanes, in Smithfield, anciently was a large Pool of Water, called Smithfield Pond, or horse pool, from the Watering of Horses there : And to the South West of which, in Cow lane, where St. Johns court ('the first Thorough fare into Chick lane, on the Right Hand leading from Smithfield) is situate, stood the Gallows, or publick Place of Execution, denominated the Elms, from the great Quantity of such Trees growing in that Neighbourhood. But the Gallows being removed to the West End of the Suburbs, this Part of Smithfield was soon erected into Streets, Lanes, &c. among the first of which Buildings was that spacious and lofty wooden Edifice denominated High hall, lately standing in the said St. Jobn's court.
This ancient Structure of Wood and Stone was the City Residence of the Prior of Sempringham in Lincolnshire, as is evident by the Writings there unto belonging in the Custody of Sir Harry Featherstone, wherein the said house is denominated Sempringham Head house.
In the Old bailey, a little lower than the Sessions house, was a large Cistern, with divers Cocks, which received the waste Water of the Prison of Ludgate, for the Use of the neighbouring Inhabitants.
At the Corner of Seacoal lane, in Fleet lane, was situate an Inn of Chancery ; but the same being Found too remote from the Courts at Westminster, the Students removed to New Inn near Drury lane, in Wych street, for their greater Convenience. Part of the Stone Wall of this ancient Inn is still to be seen, under the houses of Bishop's and Green arbour Courts in the said Seacoal lane.
In digging Fleet ditch, in the Year 1670, between the Fleet prison and Holborn bridge, at the Depth of fifteen Feet, divers Roman Utensils were discovered; and a little deeper, a great Quantity of Roman Coins of Silver, Copper, Brass, and all other Sorts of Metal, Gold excepted.
Those of Silver were Ring Money of divers Sizes ; the largest about the Bigness of a Crown, but gradually decreasing ; the smallest was about the Dimension of a Silver Two pence, each having a yellow Snip in the Edge : And at Holborn bridge were dug up two of their Brazen Lares, or household Gods, about four Inches in Length ; which, by the Quality of the Soil they lay in, were almost incrusted with a petrifick Matter ; one whereof was Ceres, and the other Bacchus.
But the Coins lying at the Bottom of the Current, their Lustre was in a great measure preserved by the Water incessantly warning off the corroding Salt. 'Tis remarkable, that the Brass Pins found in this Neighbourhood were mostly petrified ; whilst those found at Fleet bridge remained as bright as at first, notwithstanding their having lain many Ages in that Position.
I am of Opinion, that the great Quantity of Coin found in this Ditch was thrown in by the Roman Inhabitants of this City, (upon the Appproach of Boadicea with her Army) for its Preservation : But all the Citizens, without Distinction of Age or Sex, being cruelly and barbarously massacred by the inraged Britons, it was not discovered till this Time.
Besides the above named Antiquities, divers Things of a more modern Date were discovered, viz. Arrow heads, Scales, Seals, (with the Proprietors Names in Saxon Characters thereon) Spur rowels of a Hand's Breadth, Keys, and Daggers, coated over with a livid petrifick Rust, together with a considerable Number of modern Medals, with Crosses, Crucifixes, and Ave Maries engraven thereon; and Ship Counters, with large Saxon Characters.
Holborn, in the Conqueror's Survey, appears to have been a Village, situate in the Hundred of Ofulvestane, or Ofulston, denominated Holeburne, wherein the King had two Cotarti, or Cotagers, who paid to his Bailiff or Sheriff an annual Sum of twenty Denarii or Pence.
The Village of Holborn being erected on the Bank of the Brook or Bourn, it gradually extended itfelf Westward, and communicated its Name to the long and spacious Street, which reaches from Holborn bridge to St. Giles's.
Opposite St. Andrew's Church in Shoe lane, was situate a large house denominated Holborn hall ; but when, or by whom erected, or why so denominated, I cannot learn, tho' by its Name it seems to have been the Manor house.
Near to that house stood an Hospital, a Cell to the Monastery of Cluny in France; wherefore 'twas suppressed by Henry V. among other foreign Foundations.
Near the Church cf St. Andrew about the Year 1670, was discovered Part of a Roman Pavement tesselated, which is preserved in the Museum of the Royal Society,
Opposite the said Church in Holborn, where Scroops court is situate, anciently stood an Inn denominated Scroop's or Serjeant's Inn.
A little higher on the same Side of the Street stands the Bishop of Ely's City Mansion, which William de Luda, Bishop of that See, Anno 1297, bequeathed to the Use of his Successors, upon Condition, that his immediate Successor should give the Sum of one thousand Marks, as a Fund for the Support of three Chaplains to officiate in the Chapel there.
The Ground belonging to this house in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth consisted of an Orchard and Pasture of above forty Acres of Land, which was inclosed with a Wall ; when the said Queen, at the Intreaty of Christopher Hatton, Esq. and Vice Chamberlain of her household, (and afterwards Lord Chancellor) prevailed upon Richard Cox, the then Bishop, to grant to the said Hatton the Western Part of his said house for the Term of twenty Years, on which he craftily laid out a considerable Sum of Money in repairing it after a sumptuous Manner ; wherefore he applied to the Queen, to prevail upon the Bishop to alienate the same, with the spacious Garden behind it, to him; but not being to be prevailed upon, that Affair was deferred till his Death; when the Temporalities devolving to the Crown, Elizabeth granted the said Apartments and Garden to the said Hatton and his Heirs for ever; which House being since pulled down, the long and spacious Street called Hatton street, (vulgarly Hatton garden) together with those of Kirby, the Great and Little, Charles and Cress Streets , and Hatton wall, have been erected on the Sites thereof; which remain as so many Monuments of the Avarice of that Minister.
Against the South End of Shoe lane in ancient Time stood a Water Conduit, whereof Will. Eastfield, some Time Mayor, was Founder. For the Mayor and Commonalty of London being possessed of a Conduit Head, with divers springs of Water gathered thereinto, in
the Parish of Paddington, and the Water conveyed from thence, by Pipes of Lead, towards London from Tyburn, where it had lain for the Space of.. six Years and more , the Executors ot Sir William Eastfield obtained Licence of the Mayor and Commonalty for them in the Year 1453, with the Goods of Sir William, to convey the said Waters, first in Pipes of Lead, into a Pipe begun to be laid beside the great Conduit Head at Marybone, which stretches from thence to a Separal, late before made against the Chapel of Rounseval, by Charing cross, and no further, and then from thence to convey the said Water into the City, and there to make Receipt or Receipts for the same, to the Common weal of the Commonalty, viz. the Poor to drink, the Rich to dress their Meat ; which Water was by them thus brought into Fleet street, to a Standard which they had made and finished, 1471, near Shoe lane.
The Inhabitants of Fleet street, in the Year 1478, obtained Licence of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty, to make (at their own Charges) two Cisterns , the one to be set at the said Standard, the othe at Fleet bridge, for the Receipt of the waste Water. This Cistern at the Standard they built, and on the same a fair Tower of Stone, garnished with Images of St. Christopher on the Top, and Angels round about lower down, with sweet sounding Bells before them, whereupon, by an Engine placed in the
Tower, they, divers Hours of the Day and Night, with Hammers, chimed such an Hymn as was appointed.
This Conduit, or Standard, was again new built, with a large Cistern, at the Charges of the City, in the Year 1582.
This Conduit in Fleet street, with some others built at the City's Charge, Cost 2000 l.
At the East End of St. Bride's Church, and North Side of Bridewell, was situate the Bishop of St. David's Residence, and at the West End of the said Church Hood the Bishop of Salisburys City Mansion ; which coming at last to the Earls of Dorset, was converted into Streets, Lanes, &c. now Salifbury court, &c At the lower End of Dorset street, fronting the Thames, was erected a magnificent and spacious Theatre, wherein Plays were acted till the Abdication of King James II. A. D. 1688.
And Last updated on: Friday, 15-Sep-2023 12:27:39 BST