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The London Wards - Faringdon Ward Within in 1756

Baynards Castle and Faringdon within Wards in 1756 neatly engraved from a New Survey

Baynards Castle and Faringdon within Wards in 1756 neatly engraved from a New Survey

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Index of London wards in 1756 by William Maitland

CHAP. XXII.

FARINGDON WARD Within.

With a Plan, neatly engraved from a New Survey.

Its Name. Bounds. Extent. Modern State. Government. Aldermen and Common Council Parishes and Churches. Companies Halls.
St. Paul's School. College of Physicians. Christs Hospital. Black Friars. Newgate. Ludgate. Antiquities.

The Name of this Ward, and of Faringdon without, which two Wards in ancient Times had but one Alderman, and that not by Election, but by Inheritance or Purchase, as more fully appears by the following Abstract of a Deed, is derived from one of its Possessors.
" Thomas de Ardene, Sonne and Heire to Sir Ralph Ardene, Knt. granted to Ralphe le Feure. Citizen of London, one of the Sheriffs in the Year 1277, all the Aldermanrie, with the Appurtenances, within the City of London and Suburbs of the same, between Ludgate and Newgate, and also without the same Gates ; which Aldermanrie Ankerinus de Averne held during his Life, by the Grant of the said Thomas de Ardene. To have and to hold unto the said Ralph, and to his Heires, freely without all Challenge; yielding therefore yeerely to the said Thomas, and his Heires, one Clove (or Slip) of Gillifowers, at the Feast of Easter, for all secular Service and Custome, with Warrantie unto the said Ralph le Feure, and his Heires, against all People, Christians and Jewes, in Consideration of 20 Markes, which the said Ralph le Feure did give before hand, in Name of a Gerfum or Fine, to the said Thomas, &c."
"Dated the 5th of Edward I.
Witneffe, G. de Rokesley, Maior.
R. Arrar, one of the Sheriff es.
H. Wales,
P. Ie Taylor,
T. de Bassing,
J. Horn,
N. Blackthorn, Alderman of London."

After this, John le Feure, Son and Heir to the said Ralph le Feure, granted to William Farendon, Citizen and Goldsmith of London, and to his Heirs, the said Aldermanry, with the Appurtenances, for the Service thereunto belonging, in the 7th of Edward I. in the Year of Christ 1279. This Aldermanry descended to Nicholas Farendon, Son to the said William, and to his Heirs. Which Nicholas Farendon, also a Goldsmith, was four Times Mayor, and lived many Years after. He made his Will 1361, which was fifty three Years after his first being Mayor and was buried in St. Peter's Church in Cheap.
So this Ward continued under the Government of William Farendon, and Nicholas his Son, the Space of fourscore and two Years, and retains their Name unto this present Day.

The Addition of within is on Account of this Part of Farringdon Ward's lying within the Walls of London, containing the ancient Wards of Newgate and Ludgate in Distinction to the other Part, which was without the Walls, or the ancient Ward Fori, both of them being purchased by William Farendon, as above. And this Addition was given to each Part by Act of Parliament, when that large Possession of the Farendons was divided into two Aldermanries to be governed by two Aldermen.
This Ward is bounded on the East by Cheap Ward and Castle Baynard Ward, on the North, by Aldersgate Ward, Cripplegate Ward, and the Liberty of St. Martin' s le Grand ; on the West by Faringdon without, and on the South by Castle Baynard Ward, and the River of Thames.
In taking its Extent, let us proceed from the East: It begins where the great Cross stood in West cheap ; from thence it runs West, on the North Side where the Parish Church of St. Peter stood, which was at the South West Corner of Wocd street, to Gutter lane ; ' and down that Lane to Huggen lane on the East Side, and to Kery lane on the West.
Then again into Cheapside, and to Foster lane, and down that Lane, on the East Side, to the North Side of St. Foster's Church ; and on the West, till over against the South West Corner of the said Church ; from thence down Forster lane and Noble street, which is all of Aldersgate street Ward, till you come to the Stone Wall on the West Side of Noble street, then by the said Wall, down to Windsor house, or Nevil's Inn ; and down Monkswell street, on the West Side ; and then by London wall to Cripplegate ; and the West Side of that same Gate is all of Faringdon Ward.
Then back again into Cheapside; and from Fetter lane End, to St. Martin's End ; and from thence through St. Nicholas Shambles by PenteCost lane, and Butchers alley, and by Stinking lane, thro to Newgate market to Newgate. All which is the North Side of Faringdon Ward.

Then on the South, from against the Place of the great Cross in Cheap, West from Friday street ; and down that Street, on the East Side, till over against the North East Corner of St Matthews Church ; and on the West Side, till the South Corner of the said Church.
Then again along Cheap to the Old Exchange, and down that Lane, on the East Side, to the Parish Church of St. Augustine ; which Church, and one house next adjoining in Watling street, are of this Ward. And then on the West Side of this Lane it ran to the East Arch or Gate by St. Augustine's Church, which entered the South Church yard of St. Paul's, and which Arch was built by Nicholas Farendon about the Year 1361; and within the Gate, all that was formerly called the North Church yard was of this Ward.

Then again into Cheap, and from the North End of the Old Exchange West, where the North Gate of St. Paul's Church yard stood, up Paternoster row, to within about twelve Doors of Ave mary lane; the West Side of which Lane is of this Ward.
Then at the South End of Ave mary lane is Creed lane, the West Side whereof is also of this Ward.
Betwixt the South End of Ave mary lane, and the North End of Creed lane, was the coming out of St. Paul's Church yard, on the East; and the High Street, called Bowyer row, now Ludgate street, on the West, which goes to Ludgate, is of this Ward ; on the North Side whereof is St. Martin's Church, and on the South the Turning into Black friars.

Now to turn up again to the North End of Ave mary lane, there is a short Lane on the West End of it, called Amen lane, or Amen corner.
Then on the North Side of Paternoster row, beginning where the Conduit stood, over against the Old Exchange lane End, and going West by which stood St. Michael's Church, at the West End of which was a small Passage thro' toward the North, and at some small Distance another Passage, which is called Panier alley, and comes out against St. Martin' s le Grand.
Then farther West, in Paternoster row, is Ivy lane, which runs North to where stood the West End of St. Nicholas Shambles.

The West Side of Warwick lane is of this Ward ; but the East Side of that, of Ave mary lane, and of Creed lane, with the West End of Paternoster rcw, are all of Baynard's Castle Ward.
To begin again from the Place of the Conduit by the Old Exchange ; on the North Side thereof was a large Street that ran up to Newgate, the first Part to the Shambles, called Bladder street. On the Back side of the Shambles were many Slaughter houses, and such like, belonging to the Shambles, and called Mount godard street, Then were the Shambles, and then Newgate market, and so the whole Street on both Sides up to Newgate, all of this Ward, which is the farthest Extent of it.

Ludgate street is a Street of a very great Resort, both for all sorts of Carriages, &c. through Ludgate towards Fleet street, and other Western Parts of the City, and Westminster ; and from thence into the City : For which Reason it enjoys a very great Trade, being taken up by considerable Dealers in Mercery, &c. Towards the East it fronts the West End of St. Paul's.

Black friars hath a narrow Passage out of Ludgate street; but, turning by the Backside of Ludgate Prison, it falleth into an open Place with very good Buildings, well inhabited by Tradesmen. Which said Street runneth down Southwards to the Thames : That Part by Apothecaries hall, and so downwards, is called Water lane ; and hath a handsome Pair of Stairs to take Water at, where Plenty of Watermen ply; And, in its Passage to the Water Side, takes in several Courts and Yards :
As, Banister's court, which is but ordinary. Opposite to which is the house of the Lady Fitch, Relict of Sir Thomas Fitch, Knt. and Baronet ; now, or late, the Dwelling of Sir John de Laune ;
a good large and handsome Building, with a graceful Front towards the Thames. Hugh 's court hath a Passage into Duke Humfreys, which falls into Puddle dock : And out of Duke Humfreys is a Passage into Cloyster court, and so into Ireland yard, which comes into Puddle dock hill : And in this Passage receives Jackfon's court, Canterbury court, and Ireland yard, all Places of small Account. And out of Ireland yard are Friars court and New street, both which are but ordinary, and fall into Shoemakers row, which comes out of Black friars in the broad Place, and falls into Creed lane, against Carter lane End. This Shoemakers row is a Place of some Trade, and pretty well inhabited : And here are some small Courts, as Cobs court, &c.
And out of this Row is Church entry, but narrow and ordinary, and falls into Glass house yard, by St. Ann's Church. This is a pretty open Place, with good Buildings, and better inhabited than most of the other Places ; and hath a Passage into Water lane.
The King's Printing house yard, so called from the King's Printing house, there seated, a good convenient and large Building for that Use : The King's Printers there printing Bibles in Volumes, also Proclamations, and what concerns the publick Use. This house was burnt down about the Year 1742, but has been rebuilt, and made the completest Printing house in the World.
The Scotch hall, a large house, seated as well in Water lane, as on the Ditch side; made use of by Scotchmen on particular Occasions. In the Corner of Black friars, by London wall, is Worley court, which is but small. And this hath a Passage into the Ditch side, the East Side of which, all along to the Water Side, is in this Parish ; and for the generality built with good houses, and well inhabited.
Creed lane, formerly called Spurrier row, is much pestered with Carts and Carrs to Puddle dock, and other Wharfs on the Water Side, which makes it to be not over well inhabited.
The West Side is in this Ward, the East in Castle Baynard. Out of this Lane are two Passages into Holiday Yard or Court, which is a pretty large Place, but of no great Account :
And here are two Courts in it, and both bearing the same Name. This Lane comes out of Ludgate street, against Ave mary lane, and falleth into Puddle dock hill On the East Side of this Lane is Scollop court, indifferent good, with a Free stone Passage into Carter lane against Puddle dock hill.
Ave mary lane hath good houses, many of which are inhabited by noted Booksellers, Printers and Tradesmen. On the West Side is an open square Court, with good houses, called Stationers rents. Out of which Court is a Passage into Amen corner, and another into Stationers hall : close to this Hall is a Passage through Cock alley into Ludgate street ; which Alley is but narrow at the Entrance, but against the Hall it is good and airy, fronting the Hall.
Amen corner, short, but well built and inhabited, fronting Paternoster Row. At the upper End was seated the College of Physicians, burned by the general Fire of London. Since which, in that Place, are erected three fair houses, now the Seats of the Residentiaries of St. Paul's.
Warwick lane runneth Northwards into Newgate street ; the West Side being in this Ward, and the East in Castle Baynard. On the West Side are these Places : Oxford arms Inn, very considerable, and well Resorted unto ; the Inn stands backwards, and the Passage to it hath small houses on both Sides. Warwick court, a very handsome, spacious and airy Square, with an open Passage for Coaches into it ; is graced with very good large Buildings, and well inhabited by Persons of Repute. On the East Side of this Lane, is White hart street, which gives a Passage into Newgate market, inhabited by Poulterers, and such Trades whose Dependence is on the Market.
Newgate street, well inhabited by good Tradesmen, comes out of Cheapside, and Blowbladder street, and runs to Newgate, the City Goal for Malefactors. Adjoining to this Prison, on the North Side, is Swan yard, a pretty long Court, but ordinary. Phenix court, adjoining to Newgate, on the South Side, a good handsome Place, with a Free stone Pavement, and good houses.
The Part of Newgate street, from Cheapside Conduit, a little above St. Martins le Grand, unto the Shambles, was called Blowbladder street, from the Bladders there sold in former Times.
The Butchers inhabiting in this Street had formerly their Slaughter houses in Butchers hall lane, which was then called Stinking lane, from the Nastiness of the Place ; but now it is kept pretty clean : And here the Company of Butchers had their Hall. This Lane cometh out of Newgate street, and passing by Christ church, into which it hath an Entrance, falls into Bull and Mouth street, which leadeth to St. Martin' s le Grand : But this is in Aldersgate Ward.
Out of this Lane is another Passage into Angel street, an indifferent Place and is but Part in this Ward. Over against Christ church, is Crow court, which is but small. Near unto this Lane is the Bagnio, a neat contrived Building, after the Turkish Mode, for that Purpose ; seated in a large handsome Yard, and at the upper End of Pincock lane, which is indifferent well built and inhabited. This Bagnio is much Resorted unto for Sweating, being found very good for Aches, &c. and approved of by our Physicians.
On the North Side of the Shambles was Pentecost lane. Here was anciently a Church and Churchyard, afterwards a large Square, and is now called Bull head court ; which is pretty well inhabited and built.
Christ Churcb was consumed in the Conflagration of the City. And that Part called The New Church, which was made use of before, is rebuilt very handsome, at the Charges of the Parishioners of this Parish, and St. Leonard Foster lane, which is united to it.
Adjoining to Christ Church and Hospital, is a Court, which retaineth the Name of the Grey friers court ; a pretty large Place, having a Passage into the said Hospital, and another into Newgate street. And this Hospital gives a Passage out of Newgate street, through the Cloysters and Long walk, into St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and so into Smithfield; being a great Thoroughfare all the Day long: But at Night the Hospital Gates are shut up, at eight in the Winter, and ten in the Summer, as well to this Passage, as the Town Ditch, which leadeth to Little Britain.
Newgate market, before the late dreadful Fire of London, was kept in Newgate street ; where there was a Market house only for Meat, and a middle Row of Sheds, which afterwards were converted into houses, and inhabited by Butchers, Tripe sellers, &c. And the Country People, which brought Provisions to the City, were forced to stand with their Stalls in the open Street, to the Damage of their Goods, and Danger of their Persons, by the Coaches, Carts, Horses, and Cattle, that passed through the Street. But since the nominating of convenient Places in the City for publick Markets, by Act of Parliament, which appoints the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Commoners, to appoint proper Places, they have found out a most convenient Place for this Market, and near adjoining, being situate between Newgate street on the North, and Paternoster row on the South, and between Warwick lane on the West, and Ivy lane on the East. The greatest Part of which Market is in this Ward, and the other Part in Castle Baynard Ward.
The Market place is a square Piece of Ground, which is incompassed with fair houses, built according to the second Rate of Building. In the middle of the Market place, which is 148 Foot broad from North to South, and 194 Foot long from East to West, there is erected a spacious Market house, in Form of a Cross, standing upon twenty four Pillars or Columns, and ascended up into the Market house, by two or three broad Stone Steps at all the Entrances.
Under this Market house are Vaults or Cellars, and over it several Rooms, for the Stowage of the Fruiterers, and other Goods, in the Night; and over all a fair Cupola, or Bell tower. This Market house is made use of for Fruit, Herbs, &c. And round about it, at a convenient Distance, are Stalls for Butchers, as are Stalls also, by the Sides of the houses, for Butchers and Poulterers. This Market is very well served with all Sorts of Butchers Meat, and Poulterers Ware ; also with Fruit, Herbs, Butter, Eggs, &c. The Passages into this Market are, out of Newgate street, through Rose street, which is broad, but short ; well built, and inhabited by Butchers and Fishmongers : Another out of Warwick lane, through White hart street, but short also, inhabited by the like Tradesmen :
Another out of Paternoster row, through a short Alley : And two others out of Ivy lane.

More Eastward from this Market, and in Newgate street is Swan alley, which is but ordinary. Three cup court, pretty small; at the upper End of which is a Passage into Paternoster row, through the Kings arms Tavern. Kings head court, Very small.
Paternoster row, This Street, before the Fire of London, was taken up by eminent Mercers, Silk men, and Lace men ; and their Shops were so Resorted unto by the Nobility and Gentry, in their Coaches, that oft times the Street was so stopped up, that there was no Passage for Foot Passengers. But, since the said Fire, those eminent Tradesmen have settled themselves in several other Parts, especially in Ludgate street, and in Bedford street , Henrietta street, and King street, Covent garden. And the Inhabitants in this Street are now a Mixture of Trades People, such as Tire Women, or Milliners, for the Sale of Topknots, and the like Dressings for the Females. There are now many Shops of Mercers, Silk men, eminent Printers, Booksellers and Publishers.
This Street begins East at Cheapside, and runneth up to Amen corner, from which it is severed by Warwick lane and Ave mary lane. This Street hath a Passage into these Places: On the South Side, a small Alley which leads to the West End of St. Paul's, through London house yard; where formerly the Bishops of London had their house or Palace. Pauls alley, a Place of small Trade, and very narrow, and falleth on the North Side of St. Pauls, and about the middle divideth itself into two Parts, the one running strait South, and the other Westwards.
On the East Side is a Passage into Petty canons alley, indifferent large, and now converted into Buildings ; having at the upper Part or End a Passage into Paul's Churchyard, near Petty canons alley, which is a good open Place, with a Free stone Pavement, leading into Paternoster row.
Then on the North Side of this Paternoster row, next to Warwick lane, is Mermaid court, a pretty handsome Place, with a Free stone Pavement. Next is the Passage into Newgate market.
Ivy lane is well built and inhabited, and falleth into Newgate street, having two Passages into Newgate market, as aforesaid ; and on the East Side is Sun court, which is but small.
Lovel's court is a handsome large Place, with good Buildings, well inhabited. Queens head alley, so called from the Queens head Tavern, there seated in an open, square Court, from which it hath a long Passage into Newgate street. Pannier alley, near unto Cheapside ; it leads into Blow
bladder street, and is said to be the highest Ground within the City Walls ; wherein is a Stone Pedestal supporting a Pannier, with the Figure of a Boy thereon, and this Inscription :

" When you have fought the City round,
Yet still this is the highest Ground."

On the West Side of this Alley is Eagle and child court, which is but small.
A little Eastward from Pannier alley, Blow bladder street and Paternoster row, like two Rivulets, joining into one, fall into Cheapside; and just here, fronting Cheapside, stood the Parish Church of St. Michael's Quern, which, since the great Fire of London, whereby it was consumed, is not rebuilt, but the Parish is united to St. Vedast, alias Fosters.
This Street of Cheapside is spacious and large, graced with very lofty Buildings, which are well inhabited by Goldsmiths, Linen Drapers, Haberdashers, Druggists, and other noted Tradesmen, being the chief high Street in the City, and of a very great Resort, as leading to and from the Royal Exchange to all Parts Westward. This Street is seated in several Wards ; as, the Part in this Ward goeth to Wood street, taking in St. Peters Cheap Church yard ; then Cripplegate Ward begins, which goeth to Milk street ; then Cheap Ward begins, which taketh in the rest of the Street to the Poultry : And, on the South Side, this Ward runneth a little beyond Friday street ; then Bread street Ward begins, and runs almost to St. Mary le Bow Church ; and a little beyond the said Church Cheap Ward begins, and runs into the Poultry, and down Bucklersbury.

Foster lane is well built for Business, and, for the Generality, inhabited by Working Goldsmiths.
There is but a very small Part of this Lane in this Ward, not above two houses beyond the Church. And to this Ward belongs the West Side of Noble street, in Part, and Monkwell or Mugwell street, and the North Side of Hart street unto Cripplegate; which is a narrow Slip of Ground, and apart from the rest of the Ward ; the ether Sides being on Cripplegate Ward, and joining to the said Ward.
Near unto this Lane, in Cheapside, is Half moon alley, but small ; at the upper End of which is a Tavern, which gives a Passage into Foster lane, and another into Gutter lane.

Gutter lane, narrow, and inhabited chiefly by Engravers, and others who work for Silversmiths.
Here the Company of Embroiderers have their Hall. In this Lane are these Places : Day's court, on the East Side, indifferent good. Goldsmiths street leadeth to Wood street, against the Compter, indifferent good, but of this Street the greatest Part is in Cripplegate Ward. Dove court, but small and ordinary, seated on the West Side against Goldsmiths street. Innholders hall, a pretty, handsome Building. King' s head court, a pretty, square Place, seated against Innholders hall. Near unto this is Stone court, but small. More Northwards, and on the West Side, is Kery lane, a pretty handsome Place, and of some Trade, a Passage into Foster lane ; but little or no Part is in this Ward, but in Aldersgate Ward.
Wood street hath but a small Part in this Ward, only the West Side, taking in the Church yard of St. Peters Cheap ; the Church not being rebuilt St. Peters since the great Fire, and the Parish united to that of St. Matthew Friday street.
Friday street, as far as the Church of St. Matthew Friday street, is in this Ward, the rest in Bread street Ward.
By this Church is a Free stone Passage, which leads to the back Door of the Fountain Tavern in Cheapside.
Betwixt Friday street and the Old Change is Star court, a pretty large Place. Then Shepherds court, very handsome, well built, and inhabited.
The Old Change. This Street begins in Cheapside, and falls into Old Fish street ; but the Part in this Ward goeth but to St. Austins Church ; and then the West Side, unto Old Fish street, is in Castle Baynard Ward; and, on the East Side, in Bread street Ward.
This Street, taken from Cheapside to Old Fish street, is of a pretty good Trade, well built and inhabited. The Courts and Alleys, beginning next Cheapside, and so to the Old Change, are, Swan court, but small, having a Passage through a Publick house, called the Swan, into St. Pauls Church yard. Green dragon court, indifferent good. Three dagger court, but small. Purse court, a very handsome, square Place, with good Buildings, and Inhabitants answerable, with a Free stone Pavement. Lamb alley, long and ordinary. Crane court, a good handsome lace. Crown court, very good, the front Part taken up by a Painter, seated Opposite to Distaff lane. Black horse court, narrow and ordinary. Phoenix court and Ginger bread court, both small and ordinary.

Passing out of this Street through St Austins gate, (which Name it retaineth, although the Gate, since the Fire of London, is not built, but lieth open) you enter into St. Paul's Church yard, a spacious Place, and on all Sides begirt with very good Buildings, inhabited by great Traders; the East and South Sides generally by Cabinet and Chair makers, Woollen drapers, &c. Part of the East Side is taken up by St. Paul's School. St. Paul
The North Side, which is the most spacious, is taken up by Booksellers, Opticians, Goldsmiths, Toyshops, &c. And the West Side fronteth Ludgate street, where it is very spacious, and hath a very beautiful Prospect from St. Paul's.

There are to watch in the several Stands in this Ward, every Night, one Constable, a Beadle, and forty Watchmen.
The Jury returned by the Inquest for this Ward are to serve in the several Courts holden in the Guildhall in the Month of September.
It hath an Alderman, his Deputy, twelve Common Councilmen, seventeen Constables, eighteen Scavengers, eighteen Wardmote Inquest men, and a Beadle ; and is taxed to the Fifteenth
in London at fifty Pounds, and in the Exchequer at fifty three Pounds six Shillings and eight Pence.

As the Bounds of this Ward are very extensive, we meet with a great Variety of Things therein worthy of our Attention.
Firstly, There is the Metropolitan Church or Cathedral of St. Paul's: The Parishes and Churches (1) St Vedast in Foster lane (2) Christ Church in Newgate street, (3.) St. Augustine's, (4.) St. Martin's near Ludgate, (5.) St. Matthew's Friday street, (6.) St. Annes Black friars; and the Parishes of

(1.) St. Peters Cheap (2.) St. Faiths (3.) St. Michael's Querne : Of which particularly in our Parochial History.

Secondly, The Halls for the Meetings of several Companies, as,
(l.) Embroiderers hall in Gutter lane, alias Guthurn lane, so called from one Guthurn, Owner thereof, is a handsome Building.
(2.) Apothecaries hall, seated almost Opposite to the Paved alley that leadeth to the Ditch side, down Steps against Bridewell bridge. This Hall is a good Building, with a Pair of Gates leading into an open Court, handsomely paved with broad Stones, at the upper End of which is the Hall, adorned with Columns of the Tuscan Order. It is built of Brick and Stone, finished Anno 1670. The Ceiling of the Court room and Hall is adorned with Fret work, and the latter wainscotted fourteen Feet high.
In the Hall is the Portraiture of King James I. the Busto of Dr. Gideon Delaun (the said Kind's Apothecary, and a good Benefactor to this Fraternity.) Here are two large laboratories, one for Chimical, the other for Galenical Preparations. At this Hall are prepared vast Quantities of Medicines for the Apothecaries and others, and particularly the Surgeons of the Royal Fleet do here make up their Chests.

(3.) Stationers hall, situate at the upper End of Cock alley, Ludgate street, is a very good and capacious Building, with a large, handsome Hall, where the Lotteries have been frequently drawn; with a Court Room, and other necessary Apartments, made use of for the Stock Books, &c. belonging to the Company. Before it is a large Court, paved with Free stone, and inclosed with a long Range of Iron Rails, and a Pair of Iron Gates of curious Workmanship. It stands upon the Site of an ancient Palace, which was successively the Residence of the Duke of Britain, and the Earls of Pembroke and Abergavenny
(4.) Butchers hall is situate in Butchers hall lane, which on that Account has changed its Name from Stinking lane. It is divided into an upper and lower Hall, and has a Parlour and some other Rooms, finely adorned with Fret work and Wainscot.
(5.) Sadlers hall is situate near the End of Foster lane in Cheapside, at the upper End of an handsome Alley, at the Entrance of which is an ornamental Door cafe, and an Iron Gate, and is a very compleat Building for the Use of such a Company. It is adorned with Fret work and Wainscot, and the Companies Arms carved in Stone over the Gate next the Street.
Thirdly, (1.) The College of Physicians, a Building of wonderful Delicacy, is situate near the North West End of Warwick lane, so called from the Palace of the Earls of Warwick, which stood there in former Days. It is built of Brick and Stone, with a spacious Stone Frontispiece. In the Court, over the Door Cafe, is the Statue of King Charles II. in a curious Niche, and, on the other Side, the Statue of Sir John Cutler. In the Inside is a Hall, where they sit to give Advice to the Poor gratis ; a Committee Room ; a Library, furnished with Books by Sir Theodore Mayerne, and the Marquis of Dorchester, who was one of the Fellows , a great Hall for the quarterly Meetings of the Doctors, adorned with Pictures and Carvings, a Map or Plan of Lands left to the Society by Dr. Amy, a Theatre, with Seats and Tables, for anatomical Dissections ; a preparing Room, where are thirteen Tables, containing all the Muscles in the human Body ; and, over all, Garrets to dry Herbs for the Use of the Dispensary.

This Society had, in ancient Time, their College in Knightriders street, being the Gift of Dr. Linacre, Physician to King Henry VIII. From which, in succeeding Times, they removed to Amen corner, where they had purchased an house and Ground. Here Dr. Harvey, who found out the Circulation of the Blood, Anno 1652, built a Library and Publick Hall, which he granted for ever to the College, with his Library, and endowed it with his Estate, which he resigned to them in his Life ; Part of which he assigned for an anniversary Oration to commemorate all their Benefactors, and to exhort others to follow their good Examples, and for the providing a good Dinner for the Society.

The Conflagration of London, Anno 1666, consuming this house, and the Ground being but a Lease, the Fellows of this College purchased, with their own Money, a large Piece of Ground in Warwick lane, whereon they erected this curious Building.
At their first Institution there were but thirty Fellows of their Society ; but King Charles II. upon their Request, augmented the Number to forty ; and King James II. considering the large Increase of this City in Buildings and Inhabitants, was pleased in their new Charter to increase the Number to eighty, and not to exceed. Before this Charter, none could be admitted a Fellow of the College, if he had not taken his Degree of Doctor in one of the Universities; but now, all those that have taken their Degree in any foreign University are qualified to become Fellows,
(2.) St. Paul's School, situate on the East Side of St. Paul's Church yard, was built and well endowed by an excellent, pious and learned Clergyman, Dr. John Colet, King Henry the VIIIth's
esteemed Chaplain, Dean of St. Paul's, the only surviving Son of Sir Henry Colet, Knt. Citizen and Mercer of London, and twice Lord Mayor of the said City. This School was founded, and a Master for it provided, in the Year 1509, for one hundred fifty three Children to be taught freely. And such was his generous and liberal Mind, that he settled his whole Patrimony upon it in his Life time.
This School, burnt down in the common Calamity by Fire, Anno 1666, was built up again much after the same Manner and Proportion as it was before, together with the Library, and an house added on the South End thereof for the second Master, whose Dwelling before, and from the first Founding of the School, was in the Old Change, adjoining to the said School. This house hath a very handsome Front answerable to the high Master's house at the North End of the School ; on which is engraven, "ADES PRAE CEPTORIS GRAMMATICES.

The School house is large and spacious. It consisteth of eight Classes, or Forms, in the first whereof Children learn their Rudiments, and so according to their Proficiency, are advanced unto the other Forms, till they rise to the Eighth.
Whence, being commonly made perfect Grammarians, good Orators and Poets, well instructed in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and sometimes in other oriental Languages, they remove to the Universities ; and many of them enjoy Exhibitions, some of ten Pounds a Year for seven Years, if they tarry so long, towards their maintenance there. The School is governed and taught by two Masters, viz. an High Master and a Sub Master, and a Chaplain; whose Customary Office was to read the Latin Prayers in the School, framed for the peculiar Use thereof, and to instruct the Children of the two first Forms in the Elements of the Latin Tongue, and also in the Catechism and Christian Manners ; for which there is a Room, railed the Vestibulum, being the Anti room to the School, where the Youth are to be initiated into the Grounds and Principles of Christian Knowledge, as a good and proper Introduction into other human Learning.

(3.) The Grey friars within Newgate, and St. Bartholomew's Hospital, belonging anciently to the Priory of St. Bartholomew's hard by, together With St. Nicholas and St. Ewen, two neighbouring Parishes, were obtained by the City of King Henry VIII. in the 38th Year of his Reign ; all which that King granted to the City for the Relieving and Succouring of their Poor, one of the last good Acts that King did before his Death : And in the beginning of January, in the latter End of which Month King Henry died, Ridley, Bishop of Rochester, declared, at St. Paul's Cross, this Gift of the King before the People, and his charitable End therein.
The King did, in the same Year, grant the City the Hospital of Bethlehem, or Bedlam. He also then founded two Churches out of those two religious houses, the one to be called Christ church out of the Grey friars, and the other, Little St. Bartholomew's, out of the Hospital of that Name, with competent Salaries for the respective Vicars and Ministers.

And, as the King had founded Churches on these Places, so, according to that his Grant, it lay upon the City to establish here a standing Provision for the Poor. And, accordingly, some Part of the Scite of the Grey friars they purposed for a large Hospital for poor fatherless Children, here to be decently maintained, and piously brought up, and fitted for Trades and Callings : But it was not before five or six Years after the King's Grant, viz. Anno 1552, the Lord Mayor and Citizens fell upon the Reparation Fitting up of the Friars for the Reception of the Children : And they effected it the same Year, and called it Christ church Hospital ; so that in the Month of September they took in near 400 Orphans, and cloathed them in Ruffet ; but ever after they wore blue Cloth Coats ; whence it is commonly called, The Blue coat Hospital : Their Habit being, now, a long Coat of blue warm Cloth, close to the Arms and the Body, hanging loose to their Heels, girt about their Waist with a red Leather Girdle, buckled, a loose Petticoat, underneath, of yellow Cloth, (of late Years the Boys are allowed Breeches) a round thrum Cap, tied with a red Band, yellow Stockings, and black low heeled Shoes, their Hair cut close, their Locks short.

In the Year 1552, began the preparing of the Grey friars house, for the poor fatherless Children ; and, in the Month of November, the Children were taken into the same, to the Number of almost four hundred. On Christmas day, in the Afternoon, while the Lord Mayor and Aldermen rode to St. Paul's, the Children ot Christ's Hospital stood from St. Laurence's lane End in Cheap, towards St. Paul's, all in one Livery of ruffet Cotton, three hundred and forty in Number ; and the Easter following they were in Blue, and so have continued ever since.

The Antiquities of this Ward, which have come to our Knowledge, were,

(1.) An Arch or Gate in the narrow Gut or Passage into the South East End of St. Paul's Church yard called St. Augustine's Gate, because adjoining to St. Augustine's Church and built by Nicholas Farendon, Alderman of the Ward, in 1361. As also another Arch or Gate into the said Church yard from Cheapside, on the North End of the Old Change.

(2.) The great Cross in West Cheap street, erected by King Edward I. as noted before in Cheap Ward.

(3.) In Silver street, at the South End of Monkswell street, there stood Lord Windsor's house in 1603 , it was built of Stone and Timber, and was in ancient Days called Nevels Inn, belonging to the Nevels. In the 19th of Richard II. it was found, by Inquisition of a Jury, that Elizabeth Nevel died seized of a great Messuage in the Parish of St. Olave in Monkswell street in London, holder, of the King in free Burgage, which she held of the Gift of John Nevel, of Raby, her Husband ; and that John Latimer was next Son and Heir to the said Elizabeth.

This house was called Nevel' s Inn, and possessed by that noble Family until the Time of Henry VI. in the 4th of whose Reign Rafe Nevel, Earl of Westmoreland, died, seized of that Messuage in the Parish of St. Olave, in Farringdon Ward, London, and the Heirs Male of his Body, begotten on Jane , his Wife, and of another Messuage, called Le Erbor, in Dowgate Ward ; both held in Burgage, as the City of London was held.

(4.) St. James's Hermitage in the Wall. See before Lamb's Chapel.

(5.) There was, of old Times, a proper Parish Church of St. Nicholas, whereof the Flesh market in Newgate street took the Name, and was called St. Nicholas Shambles, situate at the South East Corner of Butcher hall lane.

There was anciently a Lane or Passage from a Vedast lane; now Fetter lane to Great St. Martin's Church on one Part, and to this Church of St. Nicholas Shambles on the other ; but one William de Luda, some Time Dean of St. Martin', stopped it up : Whereupon, at an Inquisition made in Edward IId's Reign, for Purprestures and Annoyances in the City, the King's Justices sitting at the Tower, the Jury presented this, and that it was to the Damage of the King and the Commonalty of the City : But Richard de Ellesfield, then Dean of St. Martin's, came in and shewed, that he held the said Lane stopped up by Virtue of a
Licence from King Edward I. and that by Letters Patents which he produced.
This Church with the Tenements and Ornaments, was, by Henry VIII. given to the Mayor and Commonalty of the City towards the Maintenance of the new Parish Church, then to be erected in the late dissolved Church of the Grey friars ; so was this Church dissolved and pulled down : In Place whereof, and of the Church yard, many fair houses are now built, in a Court, in the Midst whereof the Church stood.

(6.) Near to the North West Corner of Newgate street stood a Convent and Church of Grey friars, or Friars minors.
The first of this Order of Friars in England, nine in Number, arrived at Dover, out of Italy, in the Year 1224, the 8th Year of the Reign of King Henry III. being of the Order of the Franciscans, or Friars minors : Five of them, being Priests, remained at Canterbury ; the other four, being Laymen, came to London, and were lodged at the Preaching friars in Holborn for the Space of fifteen Days : And then they hired a house in Cornhill of John Trevers, one of the Sheriffs of London. They built there little Cells, wherein they inhabited : But, shortly after, the Devotion of the Citizens towards them, and the Number of the Friars so increased, that they were by the Citizens removed to a Place in St. Nicholas Shambles, which John Ewin, Mercer, purchasing a void Piece of Ground, appropriated unto the Commonalty, to the Use of these said Friars, and himself became a Lay brother Amongst them about the Year 1225.

And Last updated on: Friday, 06-Nov-2020 14:09:37 GMT