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The London Wards - Bishopsgate in 1756.

Bishopsgate Ward in 1756 neatly engraved from a New Survey

Bishopsgate Ward in 1756 neatly engraved from a New Survey

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Index of London wards in 1756 by William Maitland



Its Name, Bounds, and Extent. Its present State. Parishes. The Artillery ground. St. Mary Spittle. Devonshire house. Clerk's hall. Leathersellers hall. Crosby square. South Sea house. Gresham College.

This Ward takes its Name from the Gate, which stands almost in the Center thereof, on the East it is bounded by Aldgate Ward, Portsoken Ward, and Part of the Tower Liberty ; on the South by Langborn Ward, on the West by Broad street Ward, and Moorfields ; and on the North by Shoreditch ; and extends from the Bars at the North End near Spital square, on both Sides of the Way, including almost half of Houndsditch as far as the Pump, at the Corner of St. Martin's Outwich ; and then winding by the West Corner of Leadenhall, down Gracechurch street, to the South West Corner, over against Fenchurch street.

As to the present State of this Ward, we shall divide it into two Parts, as it is commonly called Bishopsgate within and Bishopsgate without, tho' under only one Alderman.
Of these two general Parts, first to begin with that within the Wall, wherein are these Streets, Lanes, and Alleys, in whole, or in Part, viz.
Gracechurch street, on both Sides the Way, from the North West Corner of Leadenhall street, and North East Corner of Cornhill, to Lombard street, and Fenchurch street.
All Bishopsgate street.
Both the Great and Little St. Helen's, in the whole.
All Crosby square.
All Camomile street.
Wormwood street, but a small Part. And in these Streets are divers Courts and Alleys.
Grace, or Grass church street, a large and spacious Street, with well built and lofty houses, inhabited by good Tradesmen. The whole Street begins at Eastcheap, and falls into Leadenhall street at the four Cross Streets : But the Part in this Ward begins only at Lombard street End, as noted above.
In this Street, on the West Side, are these Courts and Places of Name, viz. Cross Keys Inn, a Place of great Resort, large and well built, hath a Passage into George yard, Lombard street. Bell yard, a good, large, and well built Place, having a Passage into St. Michael's Church yard. Corbet' s court, a large, open, well built and inhabited Place : Near this Court is Tobacco roll court, which has but one good house in it : Church alley, adjoining to St. Peter's Church: This Alley, with a turning Passage, falls into Cornhill.
Then on the East Side of this Street, within the Limits of this Ward, which begins at Fenchurch street is Boar's head court, an open Place, taken up with Warehouses for Wholesale Dealers.
Leadenhall herb market, large, and not inferior to any in London, is in this Ward ; but the other Parts of Leadenhall, viz. the Flesh Market, and the Fish Market, &c. are in Lime street Ward.
Bishopsgate street is large, long, and spacious, and generally well inhabited : But the Fire of London, 1666, not coming into these Parts, many of the houses are old Timber Buildings, and not uniform.
In this Street are these Courts, Alleys, and Places of Name, beginning on the Southern Part, and so towards the Gate, North : Sun yard, a large Place, with a Passage into Broad street, taken up for Stablings and Coach houses, a Coachmaker, and some private houses.
Gresham College, a large, but old Building, which encompasseth a large square Court ; this being anciently the Seat of Sir Thomas Gresham, Knight, and now called Gresham College.
A little beyond this College are divers great Inns, viz. the Bull Inn, the Green Dragon, and the Four Swans, all three large, and of a considerable Trade and Resort for Waggons and Stage Coaches, that go Northwards. Sutton court, but narrow, with a Free stone Pavement, being a regular built Court, with neat Brick houses : It leads by a few Stairs into Wormwood street, thro' Peahen alley, which is but ordinary. The Vine Inn, seated near Bishopsgate.

Some Part of Wormwood street is in this Ward ; but the greatest Part, which are mostly old Buildings, is in Broad street Ward.
The Places East of Bishopsgate street, beginning at the Gate within, are as followeth :
Camomile street, the Part in this Ward goeth but a little beyond Cook's court, which is the first Court on the South East from the Gate. This Street was but of small Account, either as to its Buildings, or Inhabitants ; but is lately much amended in both. Clark's alley in Bishopsgate street, but ordinary, especially that Part which leadeth to Camomile street. Angel court, is both small and ordinary.
Little St. Helen's, a good large Place, having one or two Courts within it, with good old Timber houses, well inhabited, some by Merchants ; at the lower End of which is seated Leather sellers hall, and in another Part a Dissenting Meetinghouse.
Great St. Helen's, a handsome, open, and large Court, with Rows of good houses, well inhabited, on the East Side of the Church and Church yard, which is gracefully seated in the midst of the Court, with Rows of Trees round about the Church yard, very pleasant in the Summer Season.
Passing this Court, the Passenger is led to two others, both of the same Name, well built and inhabited; which, with a winding Passage, lead Eastward into St. Mary axe, over against St. Andrew Undershaft Church, and Westward to Crosby place, a curious open Square, with fair Brick houses, well inhabited by Gentry and Merchants ; several of the houses having Palifado Pales before, and Gardens behind them : And here is a large Meeting house. Out of this Square is a Passage through a back Gate way, shut up at Nights, passing by a large Warehouse belonging to the East India Company, and so into St. Mary axe, See Bishopsgate street without.
Having viewed the Ward within the Gate, we now pass to that Part that stands without it.

This is also a very broad and spacious Street, but not so well built and inhabited as that within the Wall. It runs Northward a great Length, but no farther in the Freedom than to the Bars.
In the Account of this Street, we begin next the Gate, at St. Botolph Bishopsgate Church, taking in all Places to the Bars on the West Side ; and then come back from the Bars on the East Side to Bishopsgate.
In St. Botolph Bishopsgate Church yard is the Rector's house, a handsome and capacious Brick Building ; and close to the North Side is an open Passage, called Alderman's walk, and leads to a very magnificent house, with a fine Garden, and a Court yard before it, graced with trees, and a Stone Statue standing on a Pedestal in the Middle. This House did formerly belong to the Family of the Dashwoods.
Old Bethlem, or Bedlam, as it is vulgarly called ; a Lane wherein stood an ancient charitable house for keeping and curing lunaticks. This was founded, A. D. 1246, by "Simon Fitzmary, Sheriff of London. King Henry VIII. gave this house to the City of London. They converted it to a house or Hospital for the Cure of Lunaticks. But, its Situation near unto many common Sewers, and its Incapacity for the ; numerous Patients which offered, being found inconvenient for the Purpose, it was removed Unto the South Side of Moorfields ; as shall be shewn, in its proper Place.
The Place that generally goes by the Name of Old Bethlem, is very large, containing several Courts and Alleys ; the principal Street comes out of Bishopsgate street, and runs into Moorfields, being a great Thoroughfare, and has been greatly improved with new and handsome Buildings of late Years ; and its Inhabitants, who were formerly only Flax and Hemp Dressers, Shoemakers, Yarn and Worsted Sellers, and Turners, are now many of them Merchants, &c. In this Place is Bethlem court, an open Place, where the Hospital stood, at the upper End of which is a Passage out of the principal Street of Bethlem ; Crown court, large, with indifferent Buildings , Loom alley, narrow, and ordinary ; housewives alley, narrow, which with a turning Passage runs a great Length, Half moon alley, long, but narrow and ordinary, and fell into Round court, which now is included in Broad street Buildings. Rose and Crown court, a large and open Place, but ordinary, leading to Moorfields, and also into Half moon alley, which leadeth into Bishopsgate street; near to this Alley is Baker's court, which hath a Passage into Half moon alley, as also into Vine court and Chequer court ; Bell court, but small, and opposite to Bethlem Church yard ; as is Three leg alley, which is narrow and ordinary, with a turning Passage ; likewise Dyer's court, but ordinary, so called, as having had a Dyer's house at the upper End.
Petty france, formerly so called, the greatest Part of this is new built, and called New Broad street ; it is a most regular Building, and has the most elegant houses in the City, at the East End is a Passage into Bishopsgate street thro' St. Botolph's Church yard.
Northwards of Bethlem, in Bishopsgate street, is Still alley, which is but small ; Garland alley, an open Place, at the upper End of which is an Inn, as also a large Yard for Stabling and Coaches, and but ordinarily inhabited; Bottle alley hath a narrow Entrance, but openeth into a Free stone Court, with well built houses, which said Alley leadeth into a another down Steps, bearing the same Name ; and out of this is a Passage into Garland alley, Swan yard Inn, at the lower End hath Stables and Coach houses ; Half moon alley, ordinary, and ill inhabited, in a strait Line it runs Westward into Moorfields ; on the South Side of this Place is Stone cutters yard, an open, but ordinary Place ; and on the North Side is a small Alley that leads to Dunnings alley ; Three Tun alley, but indifferent; White Hind court, an open Place, with a narrow Passage into It, and indifferent as to its houses and Inhabitants; Sweetapple court, so called from Sir John Sweetapple, Goldsmith, the Owner thereof, a handsome new built Place, with an open Passage for Carts ; this Place before its new Building two, viz. Soper's alley, and Horseshoe yard ; the upper End of this Court, or rather Lane, is taken up for Stables for Livery Horses, with Coach houses ; Dunning's alley, very large, and ordinary ; the West End divides itself, and tails into Half moon alley, which leads into Moorfields : In this Alley are these Courts ; Tripe yard, very small and ordinary ; Adams court, but small, with a Passage into Sweetapple court ; Pump court, but mean ; Westminster hall court , indifferent, with a Free stone Pavement ; Cripple court, very small and mean, with about two houses ; Harrow yard, also small and ordinary ; Bell yard, inconsiderable ; Lamb alley, very narrow and ordinary, which, running a great Length, divides itself, one Part falling into Sugar loaf court, and the other into Long alley : In this Alley are these Courts, Paved court, Lamb yard, and White hart yard, all three very mean ; Angel court, likewise very ordinary ; Angel alley, long and mean, at the upper End of which is a Timber yard, and on the West Side is a small Court, and passing further leads into Angel court, which is very inconsiderable : In this Alley are these Courts, Brown's court, but small ; Balaam' s court ; Sugar loaf yard ; Pheasant cock yard ; Three colts alley, all four but small and ordinary ; Jews harp court, a handsome new built Place with a Free stone Pavement; Browns yard, but ordinary ; Cock yard, very mean, at the upper End of which is Thacker's court, but mean ; Acorn court, very narrow and ordinary ; at the upper End it opens into a little Court, and out of this is a Passage into Skinner's street; George yard, inconsiderable; Skinner's street, a handsome open Place, with well built Houses, chiefly inhabited by Master Weavers ; Ship yard is very well built and uniform, with a Free stone Pavement on the West Side ; Primrose alley, long, narrow, and ordinary, hath a Passage into Long alley ; Gun yard, indifferent long, at the upper End opens itself into two Parts.

Having thus enumerated the various Places on the West Side of Bishopsgate, we come next to those on the East Side, beginning next the Bars.

Bishopsgate street without, the East Side.
Mountague court, a handsome open Place, with a Free stone Pavement, and good Buildings ; Catharine Wheel and George yard, long, hath a Passage into Mountague court, and another into the Artillery ground; Red lion Brewhouse, near which is the Red lion Inn.
Artillery lane, an open Place, with good houses, which, passing by Petticoat lane, hath the South West Side in this Ward, and runs behind Gun street.
Wide [or White] Gate street, a Place well built, and of some Account, falls into Petticoat lane : In this Street is King' s head court, as also Savage court, which have been all rebuilt, and inhabited by substantial Tradesmen and Dealers, chiefly in the Silk Way ; and Rose alley, with a turning Passage, falls into Petticoat lane ; Swedeland alley, very ordinary; Sutton's alley, both narrow and mean ;
Catharine wheel alley, narrow, and without houses, having only back Yards. It hath one Passage into Hand alley, and another into Petticoat lane. Nigh to this Alley is Catharine wheel Inn. Rose alley, long and narrow, falling into Hand alley.
Vine court, a handsome Place, with good houses on the North Side, the South lying open to' New street, formerly called Hand alley, having a Passage for Cart or Coach ; its Buildings are good, and well inhabited. King's head court, but small, with Free Stone Pavement. Three Slippers court, also small, with Free Stone Pavement. Handscourt, but small, and falls into Rose alley. Walnut tree court, both small and mean. Still court or Alley, indifferent good, falls into Houndsditch.
Devonshire square and Street, made out of an house called Fisher's Folly, an airy and creditable Place, and where the Countess of Devonshire, about eighty Years ago, dwelt in great Repute for her Hospitality : It consists of good Buildings, and they well inhabited by Merchants, and Persons of Wealth. In the Middle of the Square, upon a Pedestal carved with Figures on each Side, and ascended by three Steps, and inclosed with Iron Bars, stands a gilt Mercury : Hence is a Passage called Cavendish court, which hath good Buildings, with a Free stone Pavement, leading to Houndsditch ; and another Passage by Steps Eastward towards Gravel lane, at the Top of which Steps stands a noted Quaker's Meeting house.
More towards Bishopsgate is Magpye alley, which is narrow : Near unto this Alley is the Dolphin, an old Inn, large, and of good Account ; and adjoining to Bishopsgate is the Flying horse Inn.

Houndsditch, over against St. Botolph's Church, is a long Street, running from Bishopsgate to Aldgate : But the Part in this Ward goeth but to the Blue Anchor, the rest is in Aldgate Ward. This Street is a Place of great Trade, and of Note for Still worm makers, Pawnbrokers and Salesmen, whose Dealings are in Apparel, Linnen and Upholsterers Goods. In this Street are a great many Alleys and Courts, of which some are without Name, and for the most Part are but ordinary, viz. Flying horse yard, hath a turning Passage into Bishopsgate street a Place of small Account, only for Livery stables ; and Cavendish court falls into Devonshire street, already mentioned , Buckle court, small and ordinary.

There are to watch at Bishopsgate, and the several Stands in this Ward, every Night, a Constable, the Beadle, and eighty Watchmen, both within and without.
The Jurymen returned by the Inquests are to serve for Jurors in the several Courts in Guildhall in the Month of December.
Thus much for this Bishopsgate Ward, which hath an Alderman, two Deputies, one without the Gate, another within, six Common Council men, seven Constables, seven Scavengers, thirteen for the Wardmote Inquest, and a Beadle.
It is taxed to the Fifteenth at thirteen Pounds.
The Alderman of this Ward is Matthew Blakiston, Esq The Common Councilmen are, Mr. Thomas Long, Deputy, Mr. George Wyld, Mr. Samuel Palmer, Mr. William Cramond, Mr. Samuel Vickers, Mr. William Mottershed, Henry Hall, Esq , Mr. John Pepys, Mr. William Hussey, Mr. Richard Chapwell, Mr. Uppington Bracee, Deputy, Mr. John Fo l, Mr. Jonathan Farr, and Mr. Calvert Benn.

The most remarkable Things and Places within this Ward are ,
1. Three /Parish Churches, viz. St. Botolph's without Bishopsgate ; St. Ethelburga's, and Great St. Helen's', both within the Gate, on the East Side of the Street ; of which more particularly in the Parochial History of this great City.
2. Feathersellers Hall, Part of the Convent, for Nuns, which was there dedicated to St. Helen. This Hall, considering the Antiquity of its Building, has some of the belt Joiners and Plasterers Work in the Kingdom. The Screen is magnificent, adorned with six Columns of the Ionic Order, Enrichments, &c. with Ceiling of Fret Work. The Entrance into the common Hall is up a handsome flight of Stone Stairs from the Court yard.
3. This Ward was formerly distinguished by more publick Buildings. In the Parish of St. Botolph without the Gate was the ancient Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem, founded by Simon FitzMary, one of the Sheriffs of London, in the Year 1246. He founded it to have been a Priory of Canons, with Brethren and Sisters : And King Edward III. granted a Protection for the Brethren, Militia beata Maria de Bethlem, with in the City of London, the fourteenth Year of his Reign. It was an Hospital afterwards for distracted People ; as mentioned before, and will more largely appear by this original Deed :

In the Year 1569, Sir Thomas Roe, Merchant Taylor, Mayor, caused to be inclose with a Wall of Brick about one Acre of Ground, being Part of the said Hospital of Bethlem, to wit, on the West, on the Bank of Deep Ditch, so called,
parting the said Wall of Bethlem from the Moorfield. This he did for Burial Ease to such Parishes in London as wanted convenient Ground within their Parishes. The Lady his Wife was there buried, (by whose Persuasion he inclosed it) but himself, born in London, was buried in the Parish Church of Hackney.
This was called New Church yard, near Bethlem , where, upon Whit Sunday, the Lord Mayor, and his Brethren the Aldermen, used to resort to hear a Sermon : And this was practised Anno 1584,

The Church and Chapel of this Hospital were taken down in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, and houses built there by the Governors of Christ's Hospital in London.
On the other Side Bishopsgate street was a large house, built by the Lord John Powlet , and near that a larger and more beautiful house, built by Fiber's Jasper Fisher, free of the Goldsmiths Company, one of the Six Clerks in Chancery, and a Justice of Peace. It was afterwards the Earl of Oxford's house, and then the Earl of Devonshire's, whose Name is still preserved in the Street and Square built upon its Ruins. This house being so large and sumptuously built by a Man of no great Birth or Fortune, (for he was much in Debt) was mockingly called Fisher's Folly.
North East from this Fabrick, at the Distance of about three hundred Yards, lies a spacious Inclosure, called the Artillery Ground. This Ground was originally a large close, called Tafell close, because there were some Time Tafels planted there for the Use of Clothworkers ; afterwards let to the Cross Bow Makers, wherein they used to shoot for Games at the Popingey. Then the same being inclosed with a Brick Wall, served as an Artillery Ground, to which the Gunners of the Tower repaired weekly, namely, every Thursday, and there levelled certain Brass Pieces of great Artillery against a Butt of Earth made for that Purpose.
William, the last Prior of St. Mary Spital, with his Convent, granted over this Artillery Ground for thrice ninety nine Years, for the Use and Practice of great and small Artillery.
There was a Charter granted to the Fraternity of Artillery in great and small Ordnance by the famous Prince King Henry VIII. and the Piece of Ground, called the Artillery Ground, by his Means was appointed for the Exercise of the same Fraternity; as by the Lease thereof appeared, granted to the same Fraternity ; which Lease was put into the Hands of Sir William Pelham, Lieutenant of the Ordnance : And the same Charter since was delivered to the Lord Burleigh, Lord Treasurer under Queen Elizabeth.

Next to this Field, on which are now Duke and Stuart Streets, was the dissolved Priory and Hospital of our blessed Lady, commonly called St. Mary Spital, founded by Walter Brum and Rosia his Wife, for Canons Regular. Walter, Archdeacon of London, laid the first Stone, in the Year 1197. William, of St. Mary Church, then Bishop of London, dedicated it to the Honour of Jesus Christ, and his Mother, the perpetual Virgin Mary, by the Name of Domus Dei et Beate Maria extra Bishopfgate, in the Parish of St. Botolph : The Bounds whereof, as appeared by Composition betwixt the Parson and Prior of the said Hospital concerning Tythes, begin at Berward's lane, towards the South, and extend in Breadth to the Parish of St. Leonard Shoreditch, towards the North, and in Length from the King's street on the West, to the Bishop of London's Field, called Lollesworth, on the East. The Prior of this St. Mary Spital, for the Emortifing and Propriation of the Priory of Bikenacar in Essex to this said house of St. Mary Spital, gave to Henry VII. four hundred Pounds, in the twenty second of his Reign.

This Hospital, surrendered to Henry VIII. was reckoned to dispend four hundred and seventy eight Pounds; wherein, besides Ornaments of the Church, and other Goods pertaining to the Hospital, there were found Handing an hundred and eighty Beds, well furnished, for Receipt of the Poor of Charity, for it was an Hospital of great Relief. Sir Henry Pleftngton, Knight, was buried there A.D. 1452.
In the Place of this Hospital, and near adjoining, are now built many handsome houses for Merchants and others.
Here was the house of a famous Italian Merchant and Embassador, much employed by Queen Elizabeth, namely Sir Horatio Pallavicini. And in this same house, in the first Year of King James I. the Ambassador from the Archduke of Austria lodged, with his Company.
Queen Elizabeth, in the Month of April, 1559, came in great State from St. Mary Spital, attended with a thousand Men in Harness, with Shirts of Mail, and Croflets, and Morris Pikes, and ten great Pieces carried through London unto the Court, with Drums, Flutes, and Trumpets sounding, and two Morris Dancers ; and in a Cart two white Bears.
A Part of the large Church yard pertaining to this Hospital, and severed from the rest with a Brick Wall, was for a long Time remaining, with a Pulpit Cross therein, somewhat like to that in St. Paul's Church yard; and against the said Pulpit, on the South Side, before the Charnel and Chapel of St. Edmund the Bishop, and St. Mary Magdalen, (which Chapel was founded about the Year 1391, by W. Evesham, Citizen and Pepperer of London, who was there buried) there was a handsome house of two Stories high, for the Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriffs, and other Persons of Distinction to fit in, to hear tne Sermons preached in the Easter holidays. In the Part over them stood the Bishop of the Spital: London, and other Prelates ; afterwards the Aldermens Ladies used to stand or sit at a Window there.
On the left Hand of Bishopsgate street, from the Gate, were certain Tenements of old Time, pertaining to a Brotherhood of St. Nicholas, granted to the Parish Clerks of London, for two Chaplains to be kept in the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, near unto the Guildhall of London, in the twenty seventh of Henry VI. The first of the houses towards the North, and against the Wall of the City, was some Time a large Inn or Court, called the Wrestlers, from such a Sign ; and the last in the high Street, towards the South, was some Time also an Inn, called the Angel, from such a Sign. Amongst these said Tenements was, on the same Street Side, an Entry or Court to the Common Hall of the said Parish Clerks, with Alms houses, seven in Number, adjoining, for Parish Clerks, and their Wives, their Widows, such as were advanced in Years, and not able for Labour. One of these, by the said Brotherhood of Parish Clerks, was allowed sixteen Pence the Week ; the other six had each of them nine Pence the Week, according to the Patent thereof granted. This Brotherhood, Amongst other, being suppressed ; in the Reign of Edward VI. the
said Hall, with the other Building there, was given to Sir Robert Chester, a Knight of Cambridgeshire ; against whom the Parish Clerks commenced a Suit in the Reign of Queen Mary ; and being likely to have prevailed, the said Sir Robert Chester pulled down the Hall, sold the Timber, Stone, and Lead, and thereupon the Suit was ended. The Alms houses remained in Queen Elizabeth's Hands.
Where Crossby square now stands was anciently one great house, called Crosby Place, being built by Sir John Crofby, Grocer and Woolman, in Place of certain Tenements, with their Appurtenances, let to him by Alice Ashfield, Prioress of St. Helen's, and the Convent, at ninety nine Years, from the Year 1466 to the Year 1565, for the annual Rent of eleven Pounds six Shillings and eight Pence. This house he built of Stone and Timber, very large and beautiful, and the highest at that Time in London. He was one of the Sheriffs, and an Alderman in the Year 1470, knighted by Edward IV. in the Year 1471, and died 1475 : So short a Time enjoyed he this stately Building.
Hence returning Northward, by the West Side of Bishopsgate Street, we pass over to the South Sea house, a large, handsome Brick Building, coped with Portland Stone, at the North West Corner of Threadneedle street, which reaches backward into Broad street; in which Ward the created Part of it standing, we shall defer our Account thereof till we treat of Broad street Ward.
More Northward, about an hundred Yards, is Gresham College, formerly the Dwelling house of Sir Thomas Gresham, Knt. who died in the Year l579
Sir Thomas Gresham, Knt. a Merchant of London, Agent to Queen Elizabeth, by his last Will and Testament, dated July, 1575, gave the Royal Exchange, and all the Buildings thereunto appertaining, that is to say, the one Moiety to the Mayor and Commonalty of London, and their Successors, upon Trust, that they perform as shall be declared, and the other Moiety to the Mercers, in like Confidence.
The Salaries, and other Bequests of Sir Thomas Gresham, are payable out of the Rents of the Exchange, and other Rents of Houses belonging thereunto : But the excessive Charges in rebuilding the Exchange, by a Model which was shewn to, and approved by King Charles II. (which, some say, cost not lefs than eighty thousand Pounds) hath put the Company in Debt, and somewhat postponed the Payment of the Salaries.
Without the Gate, at the South East Corner of Half moon alley, is a large and commodious Brick Building, called the London Workbouse, which, by its Conftitution, is partly an Hospital, and partly an house of Correction.
This Foundation is commonly ascribed to an Act of Parliament passed in the Year 1662, but, without any Disparagement to so good a Design, we more properly and truly may carry the Incorporation of this house backwards to the Year 1649, as the Reader may be convinced from the following authentick Piece, communicated by a learned Clergyman of the Church of England :

And Last updated on: Friday, 15-Sep-2023 12:27:39 BST

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